Opened 11 months ago

Last modified 15 hours ago

#28643 assigned New feature

Complete the ORM Function Library

Reported by: Matthew Pava Owned by: JunyiJ
Component: Database layer (models, ORM) Version: master
Severity: Normal Keywords:
Cc: josh.smeaton@…, felixxm, Shai Berger, Adam (Chainz) Johnson, Thomas Lagae Triage Stage: Accepted
Has patch: yes Needs documentation: no
Needs tests: no Patch needs improvement: yes
Easy pickings: no UI/UX: no

Description (last modified by Nick Pope)

I was surprised to learn that we didn't have a StrIndex function until version 2, and yet we had Substr since at least version 1.8. I wonder how users were using Substr without also finding a use for StrIndex this whole time. Anyway, since we seem to be adding these functions one at a time, why don't we work on trying to get the built-ins implemented in one sweep instead?

We may even want to split the documentation page (https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/ref/models/database-functions/) into further categories with String functions and Numeric functions.

This is just a sample checklist, with corresponding attributes to which backend has them available.

Comparison
DjangoSQLDescriptionPostgreSQLOracleMySQLSQLitePR
NullIfNULLIFReturns NULL if the first argument equals the second.‎✔‎✔‎✔‎✔9543
Math
DjangoSQLDescriptionPostgreSQLOracleMySQLSQLitePR
AbsABSReturns the absolute value.‎✔‎✔‎✔‎✔9622
ACosACOSReturns the arccosine.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
ASinASINReturns the arcsine.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
ATanATANReturns the arctangent.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
ATan2ATAN2Returns the arctangent of the two variables passed to it.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
CeilCEILINGReturns the smallest integer value that is not less than a numeric expression‎✔CEIL‎✔19622
CosCOSReturns the cosine expressed in radians.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
CotCOTReturns the cotangent.‎✔‎✔5‎✔19622
DegreesDEGREESReturns a numeric expression converted from radians to degrees.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
ExpEXPReturns the base of the natural logarithm (e) raised to the power of a numeric expression.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
FloorFLOORReturns the largest integer value that is not greater than a numeric expression.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
LnLNReturns the natural logarithm of a numeric expression.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
LogLOG(B, X)Returns the logarithm of a numeric expression.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
ModMODReturns the remainder of one expression by diving by another expression.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
PiPIReturns the value of π‎✔4‎✔19622
PowerPOWERReturns the value of one expression raised to the power of another expression‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
RadiansRADIANSReturns the value of an expression converted from degrees to radians.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
RoundROUNDReturns a numeric expression rounded to an integer.
Can be used to round an expression to a number of decimal points
‎✔‎✔‎✔‎✔9622
SinSINReturns the sine given in radians.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
SqrtSQRTReturns the square root.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
TanTANReturns the tangent expressed in radians.‎✔‎✔‎✔19622
Text
DjangoSQLDescriptionPostgreSQLOracleMySQLSQLitePR
OrdASCIIReturns numeric value of left-most character. (Equivalent to ord() in Python.)‎✔‎✔‎✔UNICODE9583
ChrCHRCharacter with the given code‎✔‎✔CHARCHAR9583
LeftLEFTReturns the leftmost number of characters as specified‎✔2, 6‎✔29583
LPadLPADReturns the string argument, left-padded with the specified string‎✔‎✔‎✔19798
LTrimLTRIMRemoves leading spaces‎✔‎✔‎✔‎✔9220
MD5MD5Calculates the MD5 hash of string, returning the result in hexadecimal‎✔--1-
RepeatREPEATRepeats a string the specified number of times‎✔3‎✔19808
ReplaceREPLACEReplaces occurrences of a specified string‎✔‎✔6‎✔‎✔9539
ReverseREVERSEReverse the characters in a string‎✔-‎✔1-
RightRIGHTReturns the specified rightmost number of characters‎✔2‎✔29583
RPadRPADAppends string the specified number of times‎✔‎✔619798
RTrimRTRIMRemoves trailing spaces‎✔‎✔‎✔‎✔9220
TrimTRIMRemoves leading and trailing spaces‎✔‎✔‎✔‎✔9220
  • 1 Function can be easily supported on SQLite with a user defined function.
  • 2 Behaviour can be emulated by using SUBSTR.
  • 3 Behaviour can be emulated by using LENGTH and RPAD.
  • 4 Behaviour can be emulated by directly substituting constant math.pi.
  • 5 Behaviour can be emulated by using 1 / TAN(X).
  • 6 Doesn't work properly with multibyte characters sets on Oracle.

Change History (44)

comment:1 Changed 11 months ago by Josh Smeaton

I had hoped that the 3rd party community would take care of providing "Function Packs" for each of the backends. But functions are fairly easy to create in your own project if you need them so I guess few people have bothered to group them into a distributable package.

I would prefer that the django ecosystem had a standard group of function expressions that can be used across backends, rather than a bunch of similar but not quite the same implementations. Then 3rd party libraries can depend on the known good versions and everyone is better off. Since the community hasn't seemed to provide such a library (that I'm aware of), I think it's fine for Django to do so.

Splitting the module up into string/numeric/date types sounds fine. Let's take inspiration from postgres and other db vendor docs so navigating them is familiar. Let's begin with functions that have standard support across our 4 backends, then look into what's left over. If we can approximate support by combining other functions we can do that. Otherwise if a particular function only has support for one or two backends we can consider ignoring it or implementing in a contrib module.

comment:2 Changed 11 months ago by Josh Smeaton

Cc: josh.smeaton@… added
Triage Stage: UnreviewedAccepted

comment:3 Changed 11 months ago by felixxm

Cc: felixxm added

comment:4 Changed 11 months ago by JunyiJ

Owner: changed from nobody to JunyiJ
Status: newassigned

comment:5 Changed 11 months ago by Josh Smeaton

For whoever wants to begin here, I think a good plan of attack will be a PR per function or per a small set of functions. Then the commit message would be something like "Refs #28643 -- Added X, Y, Z functions".

That way we can get through smaller pieces at a time, without such a large burden being placed on any one individual. We could also get some newer contributors to help in this way. Each function on its own should be a relatively easy thing to implement. A higher level task of re-organising the layout into functions/string functions/number may be helpful to get the ticket rolling.

comment:6 Changed 11 months ago by Matthew Pava

I did find this third-party utility that handles specific PostgreSQL functions. I wonder if there are other backends that they could be ported to.
https://github.com/hypertrack/django-pg-utils

And I also wonder how all of this connects with specific PostgreSQL aggregate functions already builtin to Django:
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/ref/contrib/postgres/aggregates/

comment:7 in reply to:  6 Changed 10 months ago by Mads Jensen

Replying to Matthew Pava:

I did find this third-party utility that handles specific PostgreSQL functions. I wonder if there are other backends that they could be ported to.
https://github.com/hypertrack/django-pg-utils

From a quick look, these things are already supported by Django.

comment:8 Changed 10 months ago by felixxm

Description: modified (diff)

comment:9 Changed 10 months ago by felixxm

I prepared patch to reorganize database functions docs and code (PR). I think we should organize code and doc as follows (bolded functions doesn't exist):

  • docs/ref/models/database-functions.txt section Comparison and conversion functions (django/db/models/functions/comparison.py):
    • Cast, Coalesce, NullIf, Greatest, Least;
  • docs/ref/models/database-functions.txt section Date Functions (django/db/models/functions/datetime.py):
    • Extract, ExtractDay, ExtractHour, ExtractMinute, ExtractMonth, ExtractQuarter, ExtractSecond, ExtractWeek, ExtractWeekDay, ExtractYear, Now, Trunc, TruncDate, TruncDay, TruncHour, TruncMinute, TruncMonth, TruncQuarter, TruncSecond, TruncTime, TruncYear";
  • docs/ref/models/database-functions.txt section Math Functions (django/db/models/functions/math.py):
    • Abs, ACos, ASin, ATan, ATan2, Ceil, Cos, Cot, Exp, Floor, Log, Mod, Power, Round, Sin, Sqrt, Tan;
  • docs/ref/models/database-functions.txt section Text Functions (django/db/models/functions/text.py):
    • Ascii, Chr, Concat, ConcatPair, Length, LPad, Lower, LTrim, Replace, RPad, RTrim, StrIndex, Substr, Trim, Upper;
  • docs/ref/models/database-functions.txt section Window Functions (django/db/models/functions/window.py):
    • CumeDist, DenseRank, FirstValue, Lag, LastValue, Lead, NthValue, Ntile, PercentRank, Rank, RowNumber.

Headers and functions in docs and code should be organized alphabetically. Thanks Tim Graham for suggestions.

I'm not convince that following functions should be implemented because there not supported on all databases:

  • LEFT(), MD5(), REPEAT(), REVERSE(), RIGHT(), DEGREES(), PI(), RADIANS().
Last edited 8 months ago by Nick Pope (previous) (diff)

comment:10 Changed 10 months ago by Tim Graham

The "Miscellaneous" group is sort of bothering me.

Cast, Coalesce, Greatest, Least sound like candidates for a section called something like "Comparison and conversion functions"

Ascii and Chr sound like they could be "text" related.

Now sounds like a candidate for "Date Functions".

comment:11 Changed 10 months ago by felixxm

Agreed. I updated above comment and both PRs.

comment:12 Changed 10 months ago by Matthew Pava

In regards to Left() and Right(), they are available in PostgreSQL and MySQL, but not in SQLite or Oracle. However, you can emulate their functionality using the corresponding Substr function in the database backend. I would hate to see us leave those out for that reason alone. At the same time, developers could use the Substr across all databases instead of using Left and Right.

I was also wondering about the use of Trim. Python doesn't use that term; instead, it uses strip. I wonder if that really matters. Some developers may look for a strip functionality in Django ORM not realizing that the databases use the term Trim. Perhaps that could be clarified in the documentation.

comment:13 in reply to:  12 Changed 10 months ago by Shai Berger

Cc: Shai Berger added

Replying to Matthew Pava:

I was also wondering about the use of Trim. Python doesn't use that term; instead, it uses strip. I wonder if that really matters. Some developers may look for a strip functionality in Django ORM not realizing that the databases use the term Trim. Perhaps that could be clarified in the documentation.

Unless there is some other use for the term strip in the databases, I'd consider "documenting" this by giving an alias:

class Trim(Transform):
    # ...

Strip = Trim  # Give Trim a more Pythonic name

comment:14 Changed 10 months ago by GitHub <noreply@…>

In ad8036d7:

Refs #28643 -- Reorganized database functions docs.

Thanks Tim Graham for the review.

comment:15 Changed 10 months ago by Mariusz Felisiak <felisiak.mariusz@…>

In 8b42a18b:

[2.0.x] Refs #28643 -- Reorganized database functions docs.

Thanks Tim Graham for the review.

Backport of ad8036d715d4447b95d485332511b4edb1a40c0e from master

comment:16 Changed 10 months ago by GitHub <noreply@…>

In 4f27e475:

Refs #28643 -- Reorganized database functions.

Thanks Tim Graham for the review.

comment:17 Changed 10 months ago by felixxm

PR - Ltrim, Rtrim, and Trim with aliases Lstrip, Rstrip, and Strip, respectively.

Last edited 10 months ago by felixxm (previous) (diff)

comment:18 Changed 10 months ago by Matthew Pava

And, of course, there is a Python lstrip and rstrip as well.

Lstrip = Ltrim  # Give Ltrim a more Pythonic name
Rstrip = Rtrim  # Give Rtrim a more Pythonic name

comment:19 in reply to:  18 Changed 10 months ago by felixxm

Replying to Matthew Pava:

And, of course, there is a Python lstrip and rstrip as well.

Lstrip = Ltrim  # Give Ltrim a more Pythonic name
Rstrip = Rtrim  # Give Rtrim a more Pythonic name

I added these aliases.

comment:20 Changed 9 months ago by felixxm

Has patch: set

comment:21 Changed 9 months ago by Adam (Chainz) Johnson

Cc: Adam (Chainz) Johnson added

comment:22 Changed 8 months ago by Matthew Pava

Description: modified (diff)

I formatted the list into a table so we could see better what we can do to address this ticket. It looks like SQLite is missing much functionality that the other backends support, especially in the math department.

I also suggest implementing Left and Right, but for the unsupported backends to use the corresponding Substr function.

comment:23 Changed 8 months ago by Nick Pope

Description: modified (diff)

comment:24 Changed 8 months ago by Nick Pope

Description: modified (diff)

comment:25 Changed 7 months ago by Mads Jensen

Description: modified (diff)

comment:26 Changed 7 months ago by Mads Jensen

Description: modified (diff)

Added link to NullIf PR.

comment:27 Changed 7 months ago by Thomas Lagae

Cc: Thomas Lagae added
Description: modified (diff)

Add link to Abs PR.

I am a first time contributor so any feedback is much appreciated.

comment:28 Changed 7 months ago by Matthew Pava

Description: modified (diff)

comment:29 Changed 7 months ago by Thomas Lagae

When passing a non-numeric value into the Abs function, the behaviour differs between databases. I think this will also be the case for other math functions. Should we catch non-numeric values and throw an error or just document that this behaviour is undefined and differs between databases?

comment:30 Changed 7 months ago by Matthew Pava

I added a link to the Ord, Chr, Left, and Right PR.

I just started thinking more about the Left and Right aspects, and it occurred to me that a more pythonic solution would be the implementation of slicing instead of having these separate database functions. This would also change the implementation of Substr since that would no longer be necessary either.

comment:31 Changed 7 months ago by Tim Graham <timograham@…>

In 65728550:

Refs #28643 -- Added Replace database function.

comment:32 Changed 7 months ago by Nick Pope

Description: modified (diff)

comment:33 Changed 6 months ago by Tim Graham <timograham@…>

In f82de6bf:

Refs #28643 -- Added Ord, Chr, Left, and Right database functions.

comment:34 Changed 5 months ago by GitHub <noreply@…>

In 9421aee:

Refs #28643 -- Added LTrim, RTrim, and Trim database functions.

Thanks Tim Graham and Mads Jensen for reviews.

comment:35 Changed 5 months ago by felixxm

Description: modified (diff)

comment:36 Changed 5 months ago by GitHub <noreply@…>

In cede5111:

Refs #28643 -- Added LPad and RPad database functions.

Thanks Tim Graham for the review.

comment:37 Changed 5 months ago by felixxm

Description: modified (diff)

comment:38 Changed 5 months ago by Nick Pope

Description: modified (diff)

comment:39 Changed 5 months ago by felixxm

Description: modified (diff)

comment:40 Changed 4 months ago by GitHub <noreply@…>

In 55cc269:

Refs #28643 -- Added Repeat database function.

Thanks Tim Graham and Nick Pope for reviews.

comment:41 Changed 4 months ago by felixxm

Description: modified (diff)

comment:42 Changed 7 weeks ago by Tim Graham

Patch needs improvement: set

comment:43 Changed 6 weeks ago by Tim Graham <timograham@…>

In a0b19a0:

Refs #28643 -- Added math database functions.

Thanks Nick Pope for much review.

comment:44 Changed 15 hours ago by Nick Pope

Description: modified (diff)
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