Opened 8 years ago

Closed 8 years ago

Last modified 7 years ago

#14697 closed (fixed)

Speeding up queryset model instance creation

Reported by: Anssi Kääriäinen Owned by: nobody
Component: Database layer (models, ORM) Version: master
Severity: Keywords: performance, queryset, iterator
Cc: Triage Stage: Unreviewed
Has patch: yes Needs documentation: no
Needs tests: no Patch needs improvement: no
Easy pickings: no UI/UX: no


The attached patch does some easy optimizations to speed up iteration and thus model instance creation when using querysets.

The tests are run using the following code:

from django.db import models

class Test1(models.Model):

# Create your models here.
class Test2(models.Model):
    field1 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field2 = models.ForeignKey(Test1)
    field3 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field4 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field5 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field6 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field7 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field8 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field9 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field10 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field11 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field12 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    field13 = models.CharField(max_length=20)
from test_.models import *
Uncomment for first run to create objects...
t2 = Test1(pk=1)
for i in range(0, 1000):
    t = Test2(pk=i, field1='value', field2=t2)
for i in range(0, 1000):
    t = Test1(pk=i)
from datetime import datetime
from django.conf import settings
# dummy read of settings to avoid weird results in timing:
# first read of settings changes timezone...
t = settings.INSTALLED_APPS

def fetch_objs():
    for i in range(0, 10):
#        for obj in Test1.objects.all():
        for obj in Test2.objects.all():

import hotshot, hotshot.stats
prof = hotshot.Profile("")
stats = hotshot.stats.load("")
# stats.strip_dirs()
stats.sort_stats('time', 'calls')
start =
print '%s' % ( - start)
# What is the absolute maximum that can be achieved?
from django.db import connection
cursor = connection.cursor()
start =
for i in range(0, 10):
    cursor.execute('select * from test__test2')
    for obj in cursor.fetchall():
print '%s' % ( - start)

The results on my computer are as follows:

When fetching 10000 test1 objects:
0.085 seconds with patch, 0.145 seconds without patch

When fetching 10000 test2 objects:
0.200 seconds with patch, 0.27 seconds without patch

So, this should result in 20-40% speed up for these simple cases.

The absolute maximum that can be achieved is somewhere around 0.015 seconds for the Test1 case (0.007 for fetching from DB, and 0.07 for creating a python object and setting attributes for it). Add in signals and ModelState creation, and you land in somewhere between 0.02-0.03. So, there is still some ground for optimizations, but going further doesn't seem too easy. Possible optimizations: pass to a dict containing attr_name: val, so that one can update the model __dict__ directly. This results in around 20% speedup, but is backwards incompatible (either init *args or kwargs need to contain that dict and existing code does not expect that). and for that reason not included here. Another possibility is to include a different method (qs.as_list()) to fetch the list without any caching (just fetch all the results from cursor and create a list from that). I think that would result in around 20% more speedup, but would require maintaining two different implementations for fetching objects.

Just as a datapoint: Doing the same using Test2.object.raw("select * from test__test2") results in about 1 second run time. I am going to look into that next, as that is _really_ bad.

Attachments (2)

patch.diff (2.3 KB) - added by Anssi Kääriäinen 8 years ago.
iterator_benchmarks.tar.gz (1.6 KB) - added by Anssi Kääriäinen 8 years ago.

Download all attachments as: .zip

Change History (9)

Changed 8 years ago by Anssi Kääriäinen

Attachment: patch.diff added

comment:1 Changed 8 years ago by Luke Plant

It's not a requirement for a patch being accepted, but it would really help me and possibly others to have your example as part of django-bench. Jacob usually accepts pull requests for that fairly quickly. It should help you do more optimisations as well.

Or, if there is an existing benchmark which shows similar stats for your patch, just point us to that one.


comment:2 Changed 8 years ago by Luke Plant

Just as a pointer, if you wanted to create that benchmark - I think you could call the benchmark 'query_all', use the 'query_get' benchmark as an example, and use the 'setup' keyword argument to the 'run_benchmark' utility to create your objects rather than using a fixture. You should find it very straightforward.

comment:3 Changed 8 years ago by Anssi Kääriäinen

Yes, I will look into transforming the test to django-bench. However I can't promise when. I have already used too much work time for this, but if nobody tells my boss I might be able to transform that benchmark into django-bench test tomorrow...

comment:4 Changed 8 years ago by Anssi Kääriäinen

Ok, I now have django-bench benchmarks and results. I am not too familiar with django-bench, so there might be some stupid choices made in constructing the benchmarks...


query_all: fetch 1000 objects with just 2 fields
Running 'query_all' benchmark ...
Min: 0.010000 -> 0.000000: incomparable (one result was zero)
Avg: 0.015140 -> 0.009020: 1.6785x faster
Significant (t=27.972377)
Stddev: 0.00525 -> 0.00450: 1.1673x smaller (N = 1000)

query_all_multifield: fetch 1000 objects with 11 fields
Running 'query_all_multifield' benchmark ...
Min: 0.010000 -> 0.010000: no change
Avg: 0.023940 -> 0.017660: 1.3556x faster
Significant (t=27.959131)
Stddev: 0.00517 -> 0.00487: 1.0604x smaller (N = 1000)

I can't run the whole suite (getting some errors) but I tried some of the most promising named benchmarks, and didn't see any change in them, except for query_iterator, which gave me:

Running 'query_iterator' benchmark ...
Min: 0.000000 -> 0.000000: incomparable (one result was zero)
Avg: 0.000300 -> 0.000250: 1.2000x faster
Not significant
Stddev: 0.00171 -> 0.00156: 1.0926x smaller (N = 1000)

I am attaching a tar.gz that contains four benchmarks (query_all, query_all_multifield and for #14700 query_raw and query_raw_deferred). Extract to benchmarks directory...

Changed 8 years ago by Anssi Kääriäinen

Attachment: iterator_benchmarks.tar.gz added

comment:5 Changed 8 years ago by Luke Plant

Resolution: fixed
Status: newclosed

(In [14687]) Fixed #14697 - speeded up model instance creation by moving work outside of loops

Thanks to akaariai for the report and initial patch.

comment:6 Changed 8 years ago by Luke Plant

(In [14688]) [1.2.X] Fixed #14697 - speeded up model instance creation by moving work outside of loops

Thanks to akaariai for the report and initial patch.

Backport of [14687] from trunk.

comment:7 Changed 7 years ago by Jacob

milestone: 1.3

Milestone 1.3 deleted

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