Ticket #2333: test.patch

File test.patch, 108.0 KB (added by russellm, 9 years ago)

The new django.test module (more clean up)

  • test/simple.py

     
     1import unittest, doctest
     2from django.conf import settings
     3from django.core import management
     4from django.test.utils import create_test_db, destroy_test_db
     5from django.test.testcases import OutputChecker, DocTestRunner
     6
     7# The module name for tests outside models.py
     8TEST_MODULE = 'tests'
     9   
     10doctestOutputChecker = OutputChecker()
     11
     12def build_suite(app_module):
     13    "Create a complete Django test suite for the provided application module"
     14    suite = unittest.TestSuite()
     15   
     16    # Add the unit tests in the models.py file
     17    suite.addTest(unittest.defaultTestLoader.loadTestsFromModule(app_module))
     18       
     19   
     20    # Add the doctests in the models.py file
     21    try:
     22        suite.addTest(doctest.DocTestSuite(app_module,
     23                                           checker=doctestOutputChecker,
     24                                           runner=DocTestRunner))
     25    except ValueError:
     26        # No doc tests in models.py
     27        pass
     28   
     29    # Check to see if a separate 'tests' module exists parallel to the
     30    # models module
     31    try:
     32        # Import the test module
     33        app_name = app_module.__name__.rsplit('.',1)[0]
     34        test_module = __import__('.'.join([app_name, TEST_MODULE]), [], [], TEST_MODULE)
     35       
     36        # Add the unit tests in the tests.py file   
     37        suite.addTest(unittest.defaultTestLoader.loadTestsFromModule(test_module))
     38       
     39        # Add the doctests in the tests.py file
     40        try:           
     41            suite.addTest(doctest.DocTestSuite(test_module,
     42                                               checker=doctestOutputChecker,
     43                                               runner=DocTestRunner))
     44        except ValueError:
     45            # No doc tests in tests.py
     46            pass
     47                           
     48    except ImportError:
     49        # No tests.py file for application
     50        pass           
     51
     52    return suite
     53
     54def run_tests(module_list, verbosity=1, extra_tests=[]):
     55    "Run the unit tests for all the modules in the provided list"
     56   
     57    # Manually set DEBUG = False during testing
     58    settings.DEBUG = False   
     59   
     60    # Create the new test suite   
     61    suite = unittest.TestSuite()
     62     
     63    for module in module_list:
     64        suite.addTest(build_suite(module))
     65   
     66    # Add any provided extra tests to the test suite.
     67    if extra_tests:
     68        for test in extra_tests:
     69            suite.addTest(test)
     70
     71    # Create the test database
     72    old_name = create_test_db(verbosity)
     73   
     74    # Install all the apps in INSTALLED_APPS       
     75    management.syncdb(verbosity, interactive=False)
     76   
     77    # Run the test suite
     78    unittest.TextTestRunner(verbosity=verbosity).run(suite)   
     79   
     80    # Destroy the test database
     81    destroy_test_db(old_name, verbosity)
  • test/testcases.py

     
     1import re, doctest, unittest
     2from django.db import transaction
     3   
     4normalize_long_ints = lambda s: re.sub(r'(?<![\w])(\d+)L(?![\w])', '\\1', s)
     5
     6class OutputChecker(doctest.OutputChecker):
     7    def check_output(self, want, got, optionflags):
     8        ok = doctest.OutputChecker.check_output(self, want, got, optionflags)
     9
     10        # Doctest does an exact string comparison of output, which means long
     11        # integers aren't equal to normal integers ("22L" vs. "22"). The
     12        # following code normalizes long integers so that they equal normal
     13        # integers.
     14        if not ok:
     15            return normalize_long_ints(want) == normalize_long_ints(got)
     16        return ok
     17                 
     18class DocTestRunner(doctest.DocTestRunner):
     19    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
     20        doctest.DocTestRunner.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
     21        self.optionflags = doctest.ELLIPSIS
     22       
     23    def report_unexpected_exception(self, out, test, example, exc_info):
     24        doctest.DocTestRunner.report_unexpected_exception(self,out,test,example,exc_info)
     25       
     26        # Rollback, in case of database errors. Otherwise they'd have
     27        # side effects on other tests.
     28        from django.db import transaction
     29        transaction.rollback_unless_managed()
     30
  • test/utils.py

     
     1import sys, time
     2from django.conf import settings
     3from django.db import connection, transaction
     4
     5# The prefix to put on the default database name when creating
     6# the test database.
     7TEST_DATABASE_PREFIX = 'test_'
     8
     9def _set_autocommit(connection):
     10    "Make sure a connection is in autocommit mode."
     11    if hasattr(connection.connection, "autocommit"):
     12        connection.connection.autocommit(True)
     13    elif hasattr(connection.connection, "set_isolation_level"):
     14        connection.connection.set_isolation_level(0)
     15
     16def create_test_db(verbosity=1, autoclobber=False):
     17    if verbosity >= 1:
     18        print "Creating test database..."
     19    # If we're using SQLite, it's more convenient to test against an
     20    # in-memory database.
     21    if settings.DATABASE_ENGINE == "sqlite3":
     22        TEST_DATABASE_NAME = ":memory:"
     23    else:
     24        TEST_DATABASE_NAME = TEST_DATABASE_PREFIX + settings.DATABASE_NAME
     25       
     26        # Create the test database and connect to it. We need to autocommit
     27        # if the database supports it because PostgreSQL doesn't allow
     28        # CREATE/DROP DATABASE statements within transactions.
     29        cursor = connection.cursor()
     30        _set_autocommit(connection)
     31        try:
     32            cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
     33        except Exception, e:           
     34            sys.stderr.write("Got an error creating the test database: %s\n" % e)
     35            if not autoclobber:
     36                confirm = raw_input("It appears the test database, %s, already exists. Type 'yes' to delete it, or 'no' to cancel: " % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
     37            if autoclobber or confirm == 'yes':
     38                try:
     39                    if verbosity >= 1:
     40                        print "Destroying old test database..."               
     41                    cursor.execute("DROP DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
     42                    if verbosity >= 1:
     43                        print "Creating test database..."
     44                    cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
     45                except Exception, e:
     46                    sys.stderr.write("Got an error recreating the test database: %s\n" % e)
     47                    sys.exit(2)
     48            else:
     49                print "Tests cancelled."
     50                sys.exit(1)
     51               
     52    connection.close()
     53    old_database_name = settings.DATABASE_NAME
     54    settings.DATABASE_NAME = TEST_DATABASE_NAME
     55
     56    # Initialize the test database.
     57    cursor = connection.cursor()
     58           
     59    return old_database_name
     60
     61def destroy_test_db(old_database_name, verbosity=1):
     62    # Unless we're using SQLite, remove the test database to clean up after
     63    # ourselves. Connect to the previous database (not the test database)
     64    # to do so, because it's not allowed to delete a database while being
     65    # connected to it.
     66    if verbosity >= 1:
     67        print "Destroying test database..."
     68    if settings.DATABASE_ENGINE != "sqlite3":
     69        connection.close()
     70        TEST_DATABASE_NAME = settings.DATABASE_NAME
     71        settings.DATABASE_NAME = old_database_name
     72        cursor = connection.cursor()
     73        _set_autocommit(connection)
     74        time.sleep(1) # To avoid "database is being accessed by other users" errors.
     75        cursor.execute("DROP DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
     76        connection.close()
     77
  • test/doctest.py

     
     1# Module doctest.
     2# Released to the public domain 16-Jan-2001, by Tim Peters (tim@python.org).
     3# Major enhancements and refactoring by:
     4#     Jim Fulton
     5#     Edward Loper
     6
     7# Provided as-is; use at your own risk; no warranty; no promises; enjoy!
     8
     9r"""Module doctest -- a framework for running examples in docstrings.
     10
     11In simplest use, end each module M to be tested with:
     12
     13def _test():
     14    import doctest
     15    doctest.testmod()
     16
     17if __name__ == "__main__":
     18    _test()
     19
     20Then running the module as a script will cause the examples in the
     21docstrings to get executed and verified:
     22
     23python M.py
     24
     25This won't display anything unless an example fails, in which case the
     26failing example(s) and the cause(s) of the failure(s) are printed to stdout
     27(why not stderr? because stderr is a lame hack <0.2 wink>), and the final
     28line of output is "Test failed.".
     29
     30Run it with the -v switch instead:
     31
     32python M.py -v
     33
     34and a detailed report of all examples tried is printed to stdout, along
     35with assorted summaries at the end.
     36
     37You can force verbose mode by passing "verbose=True" to testmod, or prohibit
     38it by passing "verbose=False".  In either of those cases, sys.argv is not
     39examined by testmod.
     40
     41There are a variety of other ways to run doctests, including integration
     42with the unittest framework, and support for running non-Python text
     43files containing doctests.  There are also many ways to override parts
     44of doctest's default behaviors.  See the Library Reference Manual for
     45details.
     46"""
     47
     48__docformat__ = 'reStructuredText en'
     49
     50__all__ = [
     51    # 0, Option Flags
     52    'register_optionflag',
     53    'DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1',
     54    'DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE',
     55    'NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE',
     56    'ELLIPSIS',
     57    'IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL',
     58    'COMPARISON_FLAGS',
     59    'REPORT_UDIFF',
     60    'REPORT_CDIFF',
     61    'REPORT_NDIFF',
     62    'REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE',
     63    'REPORTING_FLAGS',
     64    # 1. Utility Functions
     65    'is_private',
     66    # 2. Example & DocTest
     67    'Example',
     68    'DocTest',
     69    # 3. Doctest Parser
     70    'DocTestParser',
     71    # 4. Doctest Finder
     72    'DocTestFinder',
     73    # 5. Doctest Runner
     74    'DocTestRunner',
     75    'OutputChecker',
     76    'DocTestFailure',
     77    'UnexpectedException',
     78    'DebugRunner',
     79    # 6. Test Functions
     80    'testmod',
     81    'testfile',
     82    'run_docstring_examples',
     83    # 7. Tester
     84    'Tester',
     85    # 8. Unittest Support
     86    'DocTestSuite',
     87    'DocFileSuite',
     88    'set_unittest_reportflags',
     89    # 9. Debugging Support
     90    'script_from_examples',
     91    'testsource',
     92    'debug_src',
     93    'debug',
     94]
     95
     96import __future__
     97
     98import sys, traceback, inspect, linecache, os, re, types
     99import unittest, difflib, pdb, tempfile
     100import warnings
     101from StringIO import StringIO
     102
     103# Don't whine about the deprecated is_private function in this
     104# module's tests.
     105warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", "is_private", DeprecationWarning,
     106                        __name__, 0)
     107
     108# There are 4 basic classes:
     109#  - Example: a <source, want> pair, plus an intra-docstring line number.
     110#  - DocTest: a collection of examples, parsed from a docstring, plus
     111#    info about where the docstring came from (name, filename, lineno).
     112#  - DocTestFinder: extracts DocTests from a given object's docstring and
     113#    its contained objects' docstrings.
     114#  - DocTestRunner: runs DocTest cases, and accumulates statistics.
     115#
     116# So the basic picture is:
     117#
     118#                             list of:
     119# +------+                   +---------+                   +-------+
     120# |object| --DocTestFinder-> | DocTest | --DocTestRunner-> |results|
     121# +------+                   +---------+                   +-------+
     122#                            | Example |
     123#                            |   ...   |
     124#                            | Example |
     125#                            +---------+
     126
     127# Option constants.
     128
     129OPTIONFLAGS_BY_NAME = {}
     130def register_optionflag(name):
     131    flag = 1 << len(OPTIONFLAGS_BY_NAME)
     132    OPTIONFLAGS_BY_NAME[name] = flag
     133    return flag
     134
     135DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1 = register_optionflag('DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1')
     136DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE = register_optionflag('DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE')
     137NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE = register_optionflag('NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE')
     138ELLIPSIS = register_optionflag('ELLIPSIS')
     139IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL = register_optionflag('IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL')
     140
     141COMPARISON_FLAGS = (DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1 |
     142                    DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE |
     143                    NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE |
     144                    ELLIPSIS |
     145                    IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL)
     146
     147REPORT_UDIFF = register_optionflag('REPORT_UDIFF')
     148REPORT_CDIFF = register_optionflag('REPORT_CDIFF')
     149REPORT_NDIFF = register_optionflag('REPORT_NDIFF')
     150REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE = register_optionflag('REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE')
     151
     152REPORTING_FLAGS = (REPORT_UDIFF |
     153                   REPORT_CDIFF |
     154                   REPORT_NDIFF |
     155                   REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE)
     156
     157# Special string markers for use in `want` strings:
     158BLANKLINE_MARKER = '<BLANKLINE>'
     159ELLIPSIS_MARKER = '...'
     160
     161######################################################################
     162## Table of Contents
     163######################################################################
     164#  1. Utility Functions
     165#  2. Example & DocTest -- store test cases
     166#  3. DocTest Parser -- extracts examples from strings
     167#  4. DocTest Finder -- extracts test cases from objects
     168#  5. DocTest Runner -- runs test cases
     169#  6. Test Functions -- convenient wrappers for testing
     170#  7. Tester Class -- for backwards compatibility
     171#  8. Unittest Support
     172#  9. Debugging Support
     173# 10. Example Usage
     174
     175######################################################################
     176## 1. Utility Functions
     177######################################################################
     178
     179def is_private(prefix, base):
     180    """prefix, base -> true iff name prefix + "." + base is "private".
     181
     182    Prefix may be an empty string, and base does not contain a period.
     183    Prefix is ignored (although functions you write conforming to this
     184    protocol may make use of it).
     185    Return true iff base begins with an (at least one) underscore, but
     186    does not both begin and end with (at least) two underscores.
     187
     188    >>> is_private("a.b", "my_func")
     189    False
     190    >>> is_private("____", "_my_func")
     191    True
     192    >>> is_private("someclass", "__init__")
     193    False
     194    >>> is_private("sometypo", "__init_")
     195    True
     196    >>> is_private("x.y.z", "_")
     197    True
     198    >>> is_private("_x.y.z", "__")
     199    False
     200    >>> is_private("", "")  # senseless but consistent
     201    False
     202    """
     203    warnings.warn("is_private is deprecated; it wasn't useful; "
     204                  "examine DocTestFinder.find() lists instead",
     205                  DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
     206    return base[:1] == "_" and not base[:2] == "__" == base[-2:]
     207
     208def _extract_future_flags(globs):
     209    """
     210    Return the compiler-flags associated with the future features that
     211    have been imported into the given namespace (globs).
     212    """
     213    flags = 0
     214    for fname in __future__.all_feature_names:
     215        feature = globs.get(fname, None)
     216        if feature is getattr(__future__, fname):
     217            flags |= feature.compiler_flag
     218    return flags
     219
     220def _normalize_module(module, depth=2):
     221    """
     222    Return the module specified by `module`.  In particular:
     223      - If `module` is a module, then return module.
     224      - If `module` is a string, then import and return the
     225        module with that name.
     226      - If `module` is None, then return the calling module.
     227        The calling module is assumed to be the module of
     228        the stack frame at the given depth in the call stack.
     229    """
     230    if inspect.ismodule(module):
     231        return module
     232    elif isinstance(module, (str, unicode)):
     233        return __import__(module, globals(), locals(), ["*"])
     234    elif module is None:
     235        return sys.modules[sys._getframe(depth).f_globals['__name__']]
     236    else:
     237        raise TypeError("Expected a module, string, or None")
     238
     239def _indent(s, indent=4):
     240    """
     241    Add the given number of space characters to the beginning every
     242    non-blank line in `s`, and return the result.
     243    """
     244    # This regexp matches the start of non-blank lines:
     245    return re.sub('(?m)^(?!$)', indent*' ', s)
     246
     247def _exception_traceback(exc_info):
     248    """
     249    Return a string containing a traceback message for the given
     250    exc_info tuple (as returned by sys.exc_info()).
     251    """
     252    # Get a traceback message.
     253    excout = StringIO()
     254    exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb = exc_info
     255    traceback.print_exception(exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb, file=excout)
     256    return excout.getvalue()
     257
     258# Override some StringIO methods.
     259class _SpoofOut(StringIO):
     260    def getvalue(self):
     261        result = StringIO.getvalue(self)
     262        # If anything at all was written, make sure there's a trailing
     263        # newline.  There's no way for the expected output to indicate
     264        # that a trailing newline is missing.
     265        if result and not result.endswith("\n"):
     266            result += "\n"
     267        # Prevent softspace from screwing up the next test case, in
     268        # case they used print with a trailing comma in an example.
     269        if hasattr(self, "softspace"):
     270            del self.softspace
     271        return result
     272
     273    def truncate(self,   size=None):
     274        StringIO.truncate(self, size)
     275        if hasattr(self, "softspace"):
     276            del self.softspace
     277
     278# Worst-case linear-time ellipsis matching.
     279def _ellipsis_match(want, got):
     280    """
     281    Essentially the only subtle case:
     282    >>> _ellipsis_match('aa...aa', 'aaa')
     283    False
     284    """
     285    if ELLIPSIS_MARKER not in want:
     286        return want == got
     287
     288    # Find "the real" strings.
     289    ws = want.split(ELLIPSIS_MARKER)
     290    assert len(ws) >= 2
     291
     292    # Deal with exact matches possibly needed at one or both ends.
     293    startpos, endpos = 0, len(got)
     294    w = ws[0]
     295    if w:   # starts with exact match
     296        if got.startswith(w):
     297            startpos = len(w)
     298            del ws[0]
     299        else:
     300            return False
     301    w = ws[-1]
     302    if w:   # ends with exact match
     303        if got.endswith(w):
     304            endpos -= len(w)
     305            del ws[-1]
     306        else:
     307            return False
     308
     309    if startpos > endpos:
     310        # Exact end matches required more characters than we have, as in
     311        # _ellipsis_match('aa...aa', 'aaa')
     312        return False
     313
     314    # For the rest, we only need to find the leftmost non-overlapping
     315    # match for each piece.  If there's no overall match that way alone,
     316    # there's no overall match period.
     317    for w in ws:
     318        # w may be '' at times, if there are consecutive ellipses, or
     319        # due to an ellipsis at the start or end of `want`.  That's OK.
     320        # Search for an empty string succeeds, and doesn't change startpos.
     321        startpos = got.find(w, startpos, endpos)
     322        if startpos < 0:
     323            return False
     324        startpos += len(w)
     325
     326    return True
     327
     328def _comment_line(line):
     329    "Return a commented form of the given line"
     330    line = line.rstrip()
     331    if line:
     332        return '# '+line
     333    else:
     334        return '#'
     335
     336class _OutputRedirectingPdb(pdb.Pdb):
     337    """
     338    A specialized version of the python debugger that redirects stdout
     339    to a given stream when interacting with the user.  Stdout is *not*
     340    redirected when traced code is executed.
     341    """
     342    def __init__(self, out):
     343        self.__out = out
     344        pdb.Pdb.__init__(self)
     345
     346    def trace_dispatch(self, *args):
     347        # Redirect stdout to the given stream.
     348        save_stdout = sys.stdout
     349        sys.stdout = self.__out
     350        # Call Pdb's trace dispatch method.
     351        try:
     352            return pdb.Pdb.trace_dispatch(self, *args)
     353        finally:
     354            sys.stdout = save_stdout
     355
     356# [XX] Normalize with respect to os.path.pardir?
     357def _module_relative_path(module, path):
     358    if not inspect.ismodule(module):
     359        raise TypeError, 'Expected a module: %r' % module
     360    if path.startswith('/'):
     361        raise ValueError, 'Module-relative files may not have absolute paths'
     362
     363    # Find the base directory for the path.
     364    if hasattr(module, '__file__'):
     365        # A normal module/package
     366        basedir = os.path.split(module.__file__)[0]
     367    elif module.__name__ == '__main__':
     368        # An interactive session.
     369        if len(sys.argv)>0 and sys.argv[0] != '':
     370            basedir = os.path.split(sys.argv[0])[0]
     371        else:
     372            basedir = os.curdir
     373    else:
     374        # A module w/o __file__ (this includes builtins)
     375        raise ValueError("Can't resolve paths relative to the module " +
     376                         module + " (it has no __file__)")
     377
     378    # Combine the base directory and the path.
     379    return os.path.join(basedir, *(path.split('/')))
     380
     381######################################################################
     382## 2. Example & DocTest
     383######################################################################
     384## - An "example" is a <source, want> pair, where "source" is a
     385##   fragment of source code, and "want" is the expected output for
     386##   "source."  The Example class also includes information about
     387##   where the example was extracted from.
     388##
     389## - A "doctest" is a collection of examples, typically extracted from
     390##   a string (such as an object's docstring).  The DocTest class also
     391##   includes information about where the string was extracted from.
     392
     393class Example:
     394    """
     395    A single doctest example, consisting of source code and expected
     396    output.  `Example` defines the following attributes:
     397
     398      - source: A single Python statement, always ending with a newline.
     399        The constructor adds a newline if needed.
     400
     401      - want: The expected output from running the source code (either
     402        from stdout, or a traceback in case of exception).  `want` ends
     403        with a newline unless it's empty, in which case it's an empty
     404        string.  The constructor adds a newline if needed.
     405
     406      - exc_msg: The exception message generated by the example, if
     407        the example is expected to generate an exception; or `None` if
     408        it is not expected to generate an exception.  This exception
     409        message is compared against the return value of
     410        `traceback.format_exception_only()`.  `exc_msg` ends with a
     411        newline unless it's `None`.  The constructor adds a newline
     412        if needed.
     413
     414      - lineno: The line number within the DocTest string containing
     415        this Example where the Example begins.  This line number is
     416        zero-based, with respect to the beginning of the DocTest.
     417
     418      - indent: The example's indentation in the DocTest string.
     419        I.e., the number of space characters that preceed the
     420        example's first prompt.
     421
     422      - options: A dictionary mapping from option flags to True or
     423        False, which is used to override default options for this
     424        example.  Any option flags not contained in this dictionary
     425        are left at their default value (as specified by the
     426        DocTestRunner's optionflags).  By default, no options are set.
     427    """
     428    def __init__(self, source, want, exc_msg=None, lineno=0, indent=0,
     429                 options=None):
     430        # Normalize inputs.
     431        if not source.endswith('\n'):
     432            source += '\n'
     433        if want and not want.endswith('\n'):
     434            want += '\n'
     435        if exc_msg is not None and not exc_msg.endswith('\n'):
     436            exc_msg += '\n'
     437        # Store properties.
     438        self.source = source
     439        self.want = want
     440        self.lineno = lineno
     441        self.indent = indent
     442        if options is None: options = {}
     443        self.options = options
     444        self.exc_msg = exc_msg
     445
     446class DocTest:
     447    """
     448    A collection of doctest examples that should be run in a single
     449    namespace.  Each `DocTest` defines the following attributes:
     450
     451      - examples: the list of examples.
     452
     453      - globs: The namespace (aka globals) that the examples should
     454        be run in.
     455
     456      - name: A name identifying the DocTest (typically, the name of
     457        the object whose docstring this DocTest was extracted from).
     458
     459      - filename: The name of the file that this DocTest was extracted
     460        from, or `None` if the filename is unknown.
     461
     462      - lineno: The line number within filename where this DocTest
     463        begins, or `None` if the line number is unavailable.  This
     464        line number is zero-based, with respect to the beginning of
     465        the file.
     466
     467      - docstring: The string that the examples were extracted from,
     468        or `None` if the string is unavailable.
     469    """
     470    def __init__(self, examples, globs, name, filename, lineno, docstring):
     471        """
     472        Create a new DocTest containing the given examples.  The
     473        DocTest's globals are initialized with a copy of `globs`.
     474        """
     475        assert not isinstance(examples, basestring), \
     476               "DocTest no longer accepts str; use DocTestParser instead"
     477        self.examples = examples
     478        self.docstring = docstring
     479        self.globs = globs.copy()
     480        self.name = name
     481        self.filename = filename
     482        self.lineno = lineno
     483
     484    def __repr__(self):
     485        if len(self.examples) == 0:
     486            examples = 'no examples'
     487        elif len(self.examples) == 1:
     488            examples = '1 example'
     489        else:
     490            examples = '%d examples' % len(self.examples)
     491        return ('<DocTest %s from %s:%s (%s)>' %
     492                (self.name, self.filename, self.lineno, examples))
     493
     494
     495    # This lets us sort tests by name:
     496    def __cmp__(self, other):
     497        if not isinstance(other, DocTest):
     498            return -1
     499        return cmp((self.name, self.filename, self.lineno, id(self)),
     500                   (other.name, other.filename, other.lineno, id(other)))
     501
     502######################################################################
     503## 3. DocTestParser
     504######################################################################
     505
     506class DocTestParser:
     507    """
     508    A class used to parse strings containing doctest examples.
     509    """
     510    # This regular expression is used to find doctest examples in a
     511    # string.  It defines three groups: `source` is the source code
     512    # (including leading indentation and prompts); `indent` is the
     513    # indentation of the first (PS1) line of the source code; and
     514    # `want` is the expected output (including leading indentation).
     515    _EXAMPLE_RE = re.compile(r'''
     516        # Source consists of a PS1 line followed by zero or more PS2 lines.
     517        (?P<source>
     518            (?:^(?P<indent> [ ]*) >>>    .*)    # PS1 line
     519            (?:\n           [ ]*  \.\.\. .*)*)  # PS2 lines
     520        \n?
     521        # Want consists of any non-blank lines that do not start with PS1.
     522        (?P<want> (?:(?![ ]*$)    # Not a blank line
     523                     (?![ ]*>>>)  # Not a line starting with PS1
     524                     .*$\n?       # But any other line
     525                  )*)
     526        ''', re.MULTILINE | re.VERBOSE)
     527
     528    # A regular expression for handling `want` strings that contain
     529    # expected exceptions.  It divides `want` into three pieces:
     530    #    - the traceback header line (`hdr`)
     531    #    - the traceback stack (`stack`)
     532    #    - the exception message (`msg`), as generated by
     533    #      traceback.format_exception_only()
     534    # `msg` may have multiple lines.  We assume/require that the
     535    # exception message is the first non-indented line starting with a word
     536    # character following the traceback header line.
     537    _EXCEPTION_RE = re.compile(r"""
     538        # Grab the traceback header.  Different versions of Python have
     539        # said different things on the first traceback line.
     540        ^(?P<hdr> Traceback\ \(
     541            (?: most\ recent\ call\ last
     542            |   innermost\ last
     543            ) \) :
     544        )
     545        \s* $                # toss trailing whitespace on the header.
     546        (?P<stack> .*?)      # don't blink: absorb stuff until...
     547        ^ (?P<msg> \w+ .*)   #     a line *starts* with alphanum.
     548        """, re.VERBOSE | re.MULTILINE | re.DOTALL)
     549
     550    # A callable returning a true value iff its argument is a blank line
     551    # or contains a single comment.
     552    _IS_BLANK_OR_COMMENT = re.compile(r'^[ ]*(#.*)?$').match
     553
     554    def parse(self, string, name='<string>'):
     555        """
     556        Divide the given string into examples and intervening text,
     557        and return them as a list of alternating Examples and strings.
     558        Line numbers for the Examples are 0-based.  The optional
     559        argument `name` is a name identifying this string, and is only
     560        used for error messages.
     561        """
     562        string = string.expandtabs()
     563        # If all lines begin with the same indentation, then strip it.
     564        min_indent = self._min_indent(string)
     565        if min_indent > 0:
     566            string = '\n'.join([l[min_indent:] for l in string.split('\n')])
     567
     568        output = []
     569        charno, lineno = 0, 0
     570        # Find all doctest examples in the string:
     571        for m in self._EXAMPLE_RE.finditer(string):
     572            # Add the pre-example text to `output`.
     573            output.append(string[charno:m.start()])
     574            # Update lineno (lines before this example)
     575            lineno += string.count('\n', charno, m.start())
     576            # Extract info from the regexp match.
     577            (source, options, want, exc_msg) = \
     578                     self._parse_example(m, name, lineno)
     579            # Create an Example, and add it to the list.
     580            if not self._IS_BLANK_OR_COMMENT(source):
     581                output.append( Example(source, want, exc_msg,
     582                                    lineno=lineno,
     583                                    indent=min_indent+len(m.group('indent')),
     584                                    options=options) )
     585            # Update lineno (lines inside this example)
     586            lineno += string.count('\n', m.start(), m.end())
     587            # Update charno.
     588            charno = m.end()
     589        # Add any remaining post-example text to `output`.
     590        output.append(string[charno:])
     591        return output
     592
     593    def get_doctest(self, string, globs, name, filename, lineno):
     594        """
     595        Extract all doctest examples from the given string, and
     596        collect them into a `DocTest` object.
     597
     598        `globs`, `name`, `filename`, and `lineno` are attributes for
     599        the new `DocTest` object.  See the documentation for `DocTest`
     600        for more information.
     601        """
     602        return DocTest(self.get_examples(string, name), globs,
     603                       name, filename, lineno, string)
     604
     605    def get_examples(self, string, name='<string>'):
     606        """
     607        Extract all doctest examples from the given string, and return
     608        them as a list of `Example` objects.  Line numbers are
     609        0-based, because it's most common in doctests that nothing
     610        interesting appears on the same line as opening triple-quote,
     611        and so the first interesting line is called \"line 1\" then.
     612
     613        The optional argument `name` is a name identifying this
     614        string, and is only used for error messages.
     615        """
     616        return [x for x in self.parse(string, name)
     617                if isinstance(x, Example)]
     618
     619    def _parse_example(self, m, name, lineno):
     620        """
     621        Given a regular expression match from `_EXAMPLE_RE` (`m`),
     622        return a pair `(source, want)`, where `source` is the matched
     623        example's source code (with prompts and indentation stripped);
     624        and `want` is the example's expected output (with indentation
     625        stripped).
     626
     627        `name` is the string's name, and `lineno` is the line number
     628        where the example starts; both are used for error messages.
     629        """
     630        # Get the example's indentation level.
     631        indent = len(m.group('indent'))
     632
     633        # Divide source into lines; check that they're properly
     634        # indented; and then strip their indentation & prompts.
     635        source_lines = m.group('source').split('\n')
     636        self._check_prompt_blank(source_lines, indent, name, lineno)
     637        self._check_prefix(source_lines[1:], ' '*indent + '.', name, lineno)
     638        source = '\n'.join([sl[indent+4:] for sl in source_lines])
     639
     640        # Divide want into lines; check that it's properly indented; and
     641        # then strip the indentation.  Spaces before the last newline should
     642        # be preserved, so plain rstrip() isn't good enough.
     643        want = m.group('want')
     644        want_lines = want.split('\n')
     645        if len(want_lines) > 1 and re.match(r' *$', want_lines[-1]):
     646            del want_lines[-1]  # forget final newline & spaces after it
     647        self._check_prefix(want_lines, ' '*indent, name,
     648                           lineno + len(source_lines))
     649        want = '\n'.join([wl[indent:] for wl in want_lines])
     650
     651        # If `want` contains a traceback message, then extract it.
     652        m = self._EXCEPTION_RE.match(want)
     653        if m:
     654            exc_msg = m.group('msg')
     655        else:
     656            exc_msg = None
     657
     658        # Extract options from the source.
     659        options = self._find_options(source, name, lineno)
     660
     661        return source, options, want, exc_msg
     662
     663    # This regular expression looks for option directives in the
     664    # source code of an example.  Option directives are comments
     665    # starting with "doctest:".  Warning: this may give false
     666    # positives for string-literals that contain the string
     667    # "#doctest:".  Eliminating these false positives would require
     668    # actually parsing the string; but we limit them by ignoring any
     669    # line containing "#doctest:" that is *followed* by a quote mark.
     670    _OPTION_DIRECTIVE_RE = re.compile(r'#\s*doctest:\s*([^\n\'"]*)$',
     671                                      re.MULTILINE)
     672
     673    def _find_options(self, source, name, lineno):
     674        """
     675        Return a dictionary containing option overrides extracted from
     676        option directives in the given source string.
     677
     678        `name` is the string's name, and `lineno` is the line number
     679        where the example starts; both are used for error messages.
     680        """
     681        options = {}
     682        # (note: with the current regexp, this will match at most once:)
     683        for m in self._OPTION_DIRECTIVE_RE.finditer(source):
     684            option_strings = m.group(1).replace(',', ' ').split()
     685            for option in option_strings:
     686                if (option[0] not in '+-' or
     687                    option[1:] not in OPTIONFLAGS_BY_NAME):
     688                    raise ValueError('line %r of the doctest for %s '
     689                                     'has an invalid option: %r' %
     690                                     (lineno+1, name, option))
     691                flag = OPTIONFLAGS_BY_NAME[option[1:]]
     692                options[flag] = (option[0] == '+')
     693        if options and self._IS_BLANK_OR_COMMENT(source):
     694            raise ValueError('line %r of the doctest for %s has an option '
     695                             'directive on a line with no example: %r' %
     696                             (lineno, name, source))
     697        return options
     698
     699    # This regular expression finds the indentation of every non-blank
     700    # line in a string.
     701    _INDENT_RE = re.compile('^([ ]*)(?=\S)', re.MULTILINE)
     702
     703    def _min_indent(self, s):
     704        "Return the minimum indentation of any non-blank line in `s`"
     705        indents = [len(indent) for indent in self._INDENT_RE.findall(s)]
     706        if len(indents) > 0:
     707            return min(indents)
     708        else:
     709            return 0
     710
     711    def _check_prompt_blank(self, lines, indent, name, lineno):
     712        """
     713        Given the lines of a source string (including prompts and
     714        leading indentation), check to make sure that every prompt is
     715        followed by a space character.  If any line is not followed by
     716        a space character, then raise ValueError.
     717        """
     718        for i, line in enumerate(lines):
     719            if len(line) >= indent+4 and line[indent+3] != ' ':
     720                raise ValueError('line %r of the docstring for %s '
     721                                 'lacks blank after %s: %r' %
     722                                 (lineno+i+1, name,
     723                                  line[indent:indent+3], line))
     724
     725    def _check_prefix(self, lines, prefix, name, lineno):
     726        """
     727        Check that every line in the given list starts with the given
     728        prefix; if any line does not, then raise a ValueError.
     729        """
     730        for i, line in enumerate(lines):
     731            if line and not line.startswith(prefix):
     732                raise ValueError('line %r of the docstring for %s has '
     733                                 'inconsistent leading whitespace: %r' %
     734                                 (lineno+i+1, name, line))
     735
     736
     737######################################################################
     738## 4. DocTest Finder
     739######################################################################
     740
     741class DocTestFinder:
     742    """
     743    A class used to extract the DocTests that are relevant to a given
     744    object, from its docstring and the docstrings of its contained
     745    objects.  Doctests can currently be extracted from the following
     746    object types: modules, functions, classes, methods, staticmethods,
     747    classmethods, and properties.
     748    """
     749
     750    def __init__(self, verbose=False, parser=DocTestParser(),
     751                 recurse=True, _namefilter=None, exclude_empty=True):
     752        """
     753        Create a new doctest finder.
     754
     755        The optional argument `parser` specifies a class or
     756        function that should be used to create new DocTest objects (or
     757        objects that implement the same interface as DocTest).  The
     758        signature for this factory function should match the signature
     759        of the DocTest constructor.
     760
     761        If the optional argument `recurse` is false, then `find` will
     762        only examine the given object, and not any contained objects.
     763
     764        If the optional argument `exclude_empty` is false, then `find`
     765        will include tests for objects with empty docstrings.
     766        """
     767        self._parser = parser
     768        self._verbose = verbose
     769        self._recurse = recurse
     770        self._exclude_empty = exclude_empty
     771        # _namefilter is undocumented, and exists only for temporary backward-
     772        # compatibility support of testmod's deprecated isprivate mess.
     773        self._namefilter = _namefilter
     774
     775    def find(self, obj, name=None, module=None, globs=None,
     776             extraglobs=None):
     777        """
     778        Return a list of the DocTests that are defined by the given
     779        object's docstring, or by any of its contained objects'
     780        docstrings.
     781
     782        The optional parameter `module` is the module that contains
     783        the given object.  If the module is not specified or is None, then
     784        the test finder will attempt to automatically determine the
     785        correct module.  The object's module is used:
     786
     787            - As a default namespace, if `globs` is not specified.
     788            - To prevent the DocTestFinder from extracting DocTests
     789              from objects that are imported from other modules.
     790            - To find the name of the file containing the object.
     791            - To help find the line number of the object within its
     792              file.
     793
     794        Contained objects whose module does not match `module` are ignored.
     795
     796        If `module` is False, no attempt to find the module will be made.
     797        This is obscure, of use mostly in tests:  if `module` is False, or
     798        is None but cannot be found automatically, then all objects are
     799        considered to belong to the (non-existent) module, so all contained
     800        objects will (recursively) be searched for doctests.
     801
     802        The globals for each DocTest is formed by combining `globs`
     803        and `extraglobs` (bindings in `extraglobs` override bindings
     804        in `globs`).  A new copy of the globals dictionary is created
     805        for each DocTest.  If `globs` is not specified, then it
     806        defaults to the module's `__dict__`, if specified, or {}
     807        otherwise.  If `extraglobs` is not specified, then it defaults
     808        to {}.
     809
     810        """
     811        # If name was not specified, then extract it from the object.
     812        if name is None:
     813            name = getattr(obj, '__name__', None)
     814            if name is None:
     815                raise ValueError("DocTestFinder.find: name must be given "
     816                        "when obj.__name__ doesn't exist: %r" %
     817                                 (type(obj),))
     818
     819        # Find the module that contains the given object (if obj is
     820        # a module, then module=obj.).  Note: this may fail, in which
     821        # case module will be None.
     822        if module is False:
     823            module = None
     824        elif module is None:
     825            module = inspect.getmodule(obj)
     826
     827        # Read the module's source code.  This is used by
     828        # DocTestFinder._find_lineno to find the line number for a
     829        # given object's docstring.
     830        try:
     831            file = inspect.getsourcefile(obj) or inspect.getfile(obj)
     832            source_lines = linecache.getlines(file)
     833            if not source_lines:
     834                source_lines = None
     835        except TypeError:
     836            source_lines = None
     837
     838        # Initialize globals, and merge in extraglobs.
     839        if globs is None:
     840            if module is None:
     841                globs = {}
     842            else:
     843                globs = module.__dict__.copy()
     844        else:
     845            globs = globs.copy()
     846        if extraglobs is not None:
     847            globs.update(extraglobs)
     848
     849        # Recursively explore `obj`, extracting DocTests.
     850        tests = []
     851        self._find(tests, obj, name, module, source_lines, globs, {})
     852        return tests
     853
     854    def _filter(self, obj, prefix, base):
     855        """
     856        Return true if the given object should not be examined.
     857        """
     858        return (self._namefilter is not None and
     859                self._namefilter(prefix, base))
     860
     861    def _from_module(self, module, object):
     862        """
     863        Return true if the given object is defined in the given
     864        module.
     865        """
     866        if module is None:
     867            return True
     868        elif inspect.isfunction(object):
     869            return module.__dict__ is object.func_globals
     870        elif inspect.isclass(object):
     871            return module.__name__ == object.__module__
     872        elif inspect.getmodule(object) is not None:
     873            return module is inspect.getmodule(object)
     874        elif hasattr(object, '__module__'):
     875            return module.__name__ == object.__module__
     876        elif isinstance(object, property):
     877            return True # [XX] no way not be sure.
     878        else:
     879            raise ValueError("object must be a class or function")
     880
     881    def _find(self, tests, obj, name, module, source_lines, globs, seen):
     882        """
     883        Find tests for the given object and any contained objects, and
     884        add them to `tests`.
     885        """
     886        if self._verbose:
     887            print 'Finding tests in %s' % name
     888
     889        # If we've already processed this object, then ignore it.
     890        if id(obj) in seen:
     891            return
     892        seen[id(obj)] = 1
     893
     894        # Find a test for this object, and add it to the list of tests.
     895        test = self._get_test(obj, name, module, globs, source_lines)
     896        if test is not None:
     897            tests.append(test)
     898
     899        # Look for tests in a module's contained objects.
     900        if inspect.ismodule(obj) and self._recurse:
     901            for valname, val in obj.__dict__.items():
     902                # Check if this contained object should be ignored.
     903                if self._filter(val, name, valname):
     904                    continue
     905                valname = '%s.%s' % (name, valname)
     906                # Recurse to functions & classes.
     907                if ((inspect.isfunction(val) or inspect.isclass(val)) and
     908                    self._from_module(module, val)):
     909                    self._find(tests, val, valname, module, source_lines,
     910                               globs, seen)
     911
     912        # Look for tests in a module's __test__ dictionary.
     913        if inspect.ismodule(obj) and self._recurse:
     914            for valname, val in getattr(obj, '__test__', {}).items():
     915                if not isinstance(valname, basestring):
     916                    raise ValueError("DocTestFinder.find: __test__ keys "
     917                                     "must be strings: %r" %
     918                                     (type(valname),))
     919                if not (inspect.isfunction(val) or inspect.isclass(val) or
     920                        inspect.ismethod(val) or inspect.ismodule(val) or
     921                        isinstance(val, basestring)):
     922                    raise ValueError("DocTestFinder.find: __test__ values "
     923                                     "must be strings, functions, methods, "
     924                                     "classes, or modules: %r" %
     925                                     (type(val),))
     926                valname = '%s.__test__.%s' % (name, valname)
     927                self._find(tests, val, valname, module, source_lines,
     928                           globs, seen)
     929
     930        # Look for tests in a class's contained objects.
     931        if inspect.isclass(obj) and self._recurse:
     932            for valname, val in obj.__dict__.items():
     933                # Check if this contained object should be ignored.
     934                if self._filter(val, name, valname):
     935                    continue
     936                # Special handling for staticmethod/classmethod.
     937                if isinstance(val, staticmethod):
     938                    val = getattr(obj, valname)
     939                if isinstance(val, classmethod):
     940                    val = getattr(obj, valname).im_func
     941
     942                # Recurse to methods, properties, and nested classes.
     943                if ((inspect.isfunction(val) or inspect.isclass(val) or
     944                      isinstance(val, property)) and
     945                      self._from_module(module, val)):
     946                    valname = '%s.%s' % (name, valname)
     947                    self._find(tests, val, valname, module, source_lines,
     948                               globs, seen)
     949
     950    def _get_test(self, obj, name, module, globs, source_lines):
     951        """
     952        Return a DocTest for the given object, if it defines a docstring;
     953        otherwise, return None.
     954        """
     955        # Extract the object's docstring.  If it doesn't have one,
     956        # then return None (no test for this object).
     957        if isinstance(obj, basestring):
     958            docstring = obj
     959        else:
     960            try:
     961                if obj.__doc__ is None:
     962                    docstring = ''
     963                else:
     964                    docstring = obj.__doc__
     965                    if not isinstance(docstring, basestring):
     966                        docstring = str(docstring)
     967            except (TypeError, AttributeError):
     968                docstring = ''
     969
     970        # Find the docstring's location in the file.
     971        lineno = self._find_lineno(obj, source_lines)
     972
     973        # Don't bother if the docstring is empty.
     974        if self._exclude_empty and not docstring:
     975            return None
     976
     977        # Return a DocTest for this object.
     978        if module is None:
     979            filename = None
     980        else:
     981            filename = getattr(module, '__file__', module.__name__)
     982            if filename[-4:] in (".pyc", ".pyo"):
     983                filename = filename[:-1]
     984        return self._parser.get_doctest(docstring, globs, name,
     985                                        filename, lineno)
     986
     987    def _find_lineno(self, obj, source_lines):
     988        """
     989        Return a line number of the given object's docstring.  Note:
     990        this method assumes that the object has a docstring.
     991        """
     992        lineno = None
     993
     994        # Find the line number for modules.
     995        if inspect.ismodule(obj):
     996            lineno = 0
     997
     998        # Find the line number for classes.
     999        # Note: this could be fooled if a class is defined multiple
     1000        # times in a single file.
     1001        if inspect.isclass(obj):
     1002            if source_lines is None:
     1003                return None
     1004            pat = re.compile(r'^\s*class\s*%s\b' %
     1005                             getattr(obj, '__name__', '-'))
     1006            for i, line in enumerate(source_lines):
     1007                if pat.match(line):
     1008                    lineno = i
     1009                    break
     1010
     1011        # Find the line number for functions & methods.
     1012        if inspect.ismethod(obj): obj = obj.im_func
     1013        if inspect.isfunction(obj): obj = obj.func_code
     1014        if inspect.istraceback(obj): obj = obj.tb_frame
     1015        if inspect.isframe(obj): obj = obj.f_code
     1016        if inspect.iscode(obj):
     1017            lineno = getattr(obj, 'co_firstlineno', None)-1
     1018
     1019        # Find the line number where the docstring starts.  Assume
     1020        # that it's the first line that begins with a quote mark.
     1021        # Note: this could be fooled by a multiline function
     1022        # signature, where a continuation line begins with a quote
     1023        # mark.
     1024        if lineno is not None:
     1025            if source_lines is None:
     1026                return lineno+1
     1027            pat = re.compile('(^|.*:)\s*\w*("|\')')
     1028            for lineno in range(lineno, len(source_lines)):
     1029                if pat.match(source_lines[lineno]):
     1030                    return lineno
     1031
     1032        # We couldn't find the line number.
     1033        return None
     1034
     1035######################################################################
     1036## 5. DocTest Runner
     1037######################################################################
     1038
     1039class DocTestRunner:
     1040    """
     1041    A class used to run DocTest test cases, and accumulate statistics.
     1042    The `run` method is used to process a single DocTest case.  It
     1043    returns a tuple `(f, t)`, where `t` is the number of test cases
     1044    tried, and `f` is the number of test cases that failed.
     1045
     1046        >>> tests = DocTestFinder().find(_TestClass)
     1047        >>> runner = DocTestRunner(verbose=False)
     1048        >>> for test in tests:
     1049        ...     print runner.run(test)
     1050        (0, 2)
     1051        (0, 1)
     1052        (0, 2)
     1053        (0, 2)
     1054
     1055    The `summarize` method prints a summary of all the test cases that
     1056    have been run by the runner, and returns an aggregated `(f, t)`
     1057    tuple:
     1058
     1059        >>> runner.summarize(verbose=1)
     1060        4 items passed all tests:
     1061           2 tests in _TestClass
     1062           2 tests in _TestClass.__init__
     1063           2 tests in _TestClass.get
     1064           1 tests in _TestClass.square
     1065        7 tests in 4 items.
     1066        7 passed and 0 failed.
     1067        Test passed.
     1068        (0, 7)
     1069
     1070    The aggregated number of tried examples and failed examples is
     1071    also available via the `tries` and `failures` attributes:
     1072
     1073        >>> runner.tries
     1074        7
     1075        >>> runner.failures
     1076        0
     1077
     1078    The comparison between expected outputs and actual outputs is done
     1079    by an `OutputChecker`.  This comparison may be customized with a
     1080    number of option flags; see the documentation for `testmod` for
     1081    more information.  If the option flags are insufficient, then the
     1082    comparison may also be customized by passing a subclass of
     1083    `OutputChecker` to the constructor.
     1084
     1085    The test runner's display output can be controlled in two ways.
     1086    First, an output function (`out) can be passed to
     1087    `TestRunner.run`; this function will be called with strings that
     1088    should be displayed.  It defaults to `sys.stdout.write`.  If
     1089    capturing the output is not sufficient, then the display output
     1090    can be also customized by subclassing DocTestRunner, and
     1091    overriding the methods `report_start`, `report_success`,
     1092    `report_unexpected_exception`, and `report_failure`.
     1093    """
     1094    # This divider string is used to separate failure messages, and to
     1095    # separate sections of the summary.
     1096    DIVIDER = "*" * 70
     1097
     1098    def __init__(self, checker=None, verbose=None, optionflags=0):
     1099        """
     1100        Create a new test runner.
     1101
     1102        Optional keyword arg `checker` is the `OutputChecker` that
     1103        should be used to compare the expected outputs and actual
     1104        outputs of doctest examples.
     1105
     1106        Optional keyword arg 'verbose' prints lots of stuff if true,
     1107        only failures if false; by default, it's true iff '-v' is in
     1108        sys.argv.
     1109
     1110        Optional argument `optionflags` can be used to control how the
     1111        test runner compares expected output to actual output, and how
     1112        it displays failures.  See the documentation for `testmod` for
     1113        more information.
     1114        """
     1115        self._checker = checker or OutputChecker()
     1116        if verbose is None:
     1117            verbose = '-v' in sys.argv
     1118        self._verbose = verbose
     1119        self.optionflags = optionflags
     1120        self.original_optionflags = optionflags
     1121
     1122        # Keep track of the examples we've run.
     1123        self.tries = 0
     1124        self.failures = 0
     1125        self._name2ft = {}
     1126
     1127        # Create a fake output target for capturing doctest output.
     1128        self._fakeout = _SpoofOut()
     1129
     1130    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1131    # Reporting methods
     1132    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1133
     1134    def report_start(self, out, test, example):
     1135        """
     1136        Report that the test runner is about to process the given
     1137        example.  (Only displays a message if verbose=True)
     1138        """
     1139        if self._verbose:
     1140            if example.want:
     1141                out('Trying:\n' + _indent(example.source) +
     1142                    'Expecting:\n' + _indent(example.want))
     1143            else:
     1144                out('Trying:\n' + _indent(example.source) +
     1145                    'Expecting nothing\n')
     1146
     1147    def report_success(self, out, test, example, got):
     1148        """
     1149        Report that the given example ran successfully.  (Only
     1150        displays a message if verbose=True)
     1151        """
     1152        if self._verbose:
     1153            out("ok\n")
     1154
     1155    def report_failure(self, out, test, example, got):
     1156        """
     1157        Report that the given example failed.
     1158        """
     1159        out(self._failure_header(test, example) +
     1160            self._checker.output_difference(example, got, self.optionflags))
     1161
     1162    def report_unexpected_exception(self, out, test, example, exc_info):
     1163        """
     1164        Report that the given example raised an unexpected exception.
     1165        """
     1166        out(self._failure_header(test, example) +
     1167            'Exception raised:\n' + _indent(_exception_traceback(exc_info)))
     1168
     1169    def _failure_header(self, test, example):
     1170        out = [self.DIVIDER]
     1171        if test.filename:
     1172            if test.lineno is not None and example.lineno is not None:
     1173                lineno = test.lineno + example.lineno + 1
     1174            else:
     1175                lineno = '?'
     1176            out.append('File "%s", line %s, in %s' %
     1177                       (test.filename, lineno, test.name))
     1178        else:
     1179            out.append('Line %s, in %s' % (example.lineno+1, test.name))
     1180        out.append('Failed example:')
     1181        source = example.source
     1182        out.append(_indent(source))
     1183        return '\n'.join(out)
     1184
     1185    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1186    # DocTest Running
     1187    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1188
     1189    def __run(self, test, compileflags, out):
     1190        """
     1191        Run the examples in `test`.  Write the outcome of each example
     1192        with one of the `DocTestRunner.report_*` methods, using the
     1193        writer function `out`.  `compileflags` is the set of compiler
     1194        flags that should be used to execute examples.  Return a tuple
     1195        `(f, t)`, where `t` is the number of examples tried, and `f`
     1196        is the number of examples that failed.  The examples are run
     1197        in the namespace `test.globs`.
     1198        """
     1199        # Keep track of the number of failures and tries.
     1200        failures = tries = 0
     1201
     1202        # Save the option flags (since option directives can be used
     1203        # to modify them).
     1204        original_optionflags = self.optionflags
     1205
     1206        SUCCESS, FAILURE, BOOM = range(3) # `outcome` state
     1207
     1208        check = self._checker.check_output
     1209
     1210        # Process each example.
     1211        for examplenum, example in enumerate(test.examples):
     1212
     1213            # If REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE is set, then suppress
     1214            # reporting after the first failure.
     1215            quiet = (self.optionflags & REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE and
     1216                     failures > 0)
     1217
     1218            # Merge in the example's options.
     1219            self.optionflags = original_optionflags
     1220            if example.options:
     1221                for (optionflag, val) in example.options.items():
     1222                    if val:
     1223                        self.optionflags |= optionflag
     1224                    else:
     1225                        self.optionflags &= ~optionflag
     1226
     1227            # Record that we started this example.
     1228            tries += 1
     1229            if not quiet:
     1230                self.report_start(out, test, example)
     1231
     1232            # Use a special filename for compile(), so we can retrieve
     1233            # the source code during interactive debugging (see
     1234            # __patched_linecache_getlines).
     1235            filename = '<doctest %s[%d]>' % (test.name, examplenum)
     1236
     1237            # Run the example in the given context (globs), and record
     1238            # any exception that gets raised.  (But don't intercept
     1239            # keyboard interrupts.)
     1240            try:
     1241                # Don't blink!  This is where the user's code gets run.
     1242                exec compile(example.source, filename, "single",
     1243                             compileflags, 1) in test.globs
     1244                self.debugger.set_continue() # ==== Example Finished ====
     1245                exception = None
     1246            except KeyboardInterrupt:
     1247                raise
     1248            except:
     1249                exception = sys.exc_info()
     1250                self.debugger.set_continue() # ==== Example Finished ====
     1251
     1252            got = self._fakeout.getvalue()  # the actual output
     1253            self._fakeout.truncate(0)
     1254            outcome = FAILURE   # guilty until proved innocent or insane
     1255
     1256            # If the example executed without raising any exceptions,
     1257            # verify its output.
     1258            if exception is None:
     1259                if check(example.want, got, self.optionflags):
     1260                    outcome = SUCCESS
     1261
     1262            # The example raised an exception:  check if it was expected.
     1263            else:
     1264                exc_info = sys.exc_info()
     1265                exc_msg = traceback.format_exception_only(*exc_info[:2])[-1]
     1266                if not quiet:
     1267                    got += _exception_traceback(exc_info)
     1268
     1269                # If `example.exc_msg` is None, then we weren't expecting
     1270                # an exception.
     1271                if example.exc_msg is None:
     1272                    outcome = BOOM
     1273
     1274                # We expected an exception:  see whether it matches.
     1275                elif check(example.exc_msg, exc_msg, self.optionflags):
     1276                    outcome = SUCCESS
     1277
     1278                # Another chance if they didn't care about the detail.
     1279                elif self.optionflags & IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL:
     1280                    m1 = re.match(r'[^:]*:', example.exc_msg)
     1281                    m2 = re.match(r'[^:]*:', exc_msg)
     1282                    if m1 and m2 and check(m1.group(0), m2.group(0),
     1283                                           self.optionflags):
     1284                        outcome = SUCCESS
     1285
     1286            # Report the outcome.
     1287            if outcome is SUCCESS:
     1288                if not quiet:
     1289                    self.report_success(out, test, example, got)
     1290            elif outcome is FAILURE:
     1291                if not quiet:
     1292                    self.report_failure(out, test, example, got)
     1293                failures += 1
     1294            elif outcome is BOOM:
     1295                if not quiet:
     1296                    self.report_unexpected_exception(out, test, example,
     1297                                                     exc_info)
     1298                failures += 1
     1299            else:
     1300                assert False, ("unknown outcome", outcome)
     1301
     1302        # Restore the option flags (in case they were modified)
     1303        self.optionflags = original_optionflags
     1304
     1305        # Record and return the number of failures and tries.
     1306        self.__record_outcome(test, failures, tries)
     1307        return failures, tries
     1308
     1309    def __record_outcome(self, test, f, t):
     1310        """
     1311        Record the fact that the given DocTest (`test`) generated `f`
     1312        failures out of `t` tried examples.
     1313        """
     1314        f2, t2 = self._name2ft.get(test.name, (0,0))
     1315        self._name2ft[test.name] = (f+f2, t+t2)
     1316        self.failures += f
     1317        self.tries += t
     1318
     1319    __LINECACHE_FILENAME_RE = re.compile(r'<doctest '
     1320                                         r'(?P<name>[\w\.]+)'
     1321                                         r'\[(?P<examplenum>\d+)\]>$')
     1322    def __patched_linecache_getlines(self, filename):
     1323        m = self.__LINECACHE_FILENAME_RE.match(filename)
     1324        if m and m.group('name') == self.test.name:
     1325            example = self.test.examples[int(m.group('examplenum'))]
     1326            return example.source.splitlines(True)
     1327        else:
     1328            return self.save_linecache_getlines(filename)
     1329
     1330    def run(self, test, compileflags=None, out=None, clear_globs=True):
     1331        """
     1332        Run the examples in `test`, and display the results using the
     1333        writer function `out`.
     1334
     1335        The examples are run in the namespace `test.globs`.  If
     1336        `clear_globs` is true (the default), then this namespace will
     1337        be cleared after the test runs, to help with garbage
     1338        collection.  If you would like to examine the namespace after
     1339        the test completes, then use `clear_globs=False`.
     1340
     1341        `compileflags` gives the set of flags that should be used by
     1342        the Python compiler when running the examples.  If not
     1343        specified, then it will default to the set of future-import
     1344        flags that apply to `globs`.
     1345
     1346        The output of each example is checked using
     1347        `DocTestRunner.check_output`, and the results are formatted by
     1348        the `DocTestRunner.report_*` methods.
     1349        """
     1350        self.test = test
     1351
     1352        if compileflags is None:
     1353            compileflags = _extract_future_flags(test.globs)
     1354
     1355        save_stdout = sys.stdout
     1356        if out is None:
     1357            out = save_stdout.write
     1358        sys.stdout = self._fakeout
     1359
     1360        # Patch pdb.set_trace to restore sys.stdout during interactive
     1361        # debugging (so it's not still redirected to self._fakeout).
     1362        # Note that the interactive output will go to *our*
     1363        # save_stdout, even if that's not the real sys.stdout; this
     1364        # allows us to write test cases for the set_trace behavior.
     1365        save_set_trace = pdb.set_trace
     1366        self.debugger = _OutputRedirectingPdb(save_stdout)
     1367        self.debugger.reset()
     1368        pdb.set_trace = self.debugger.set_trace
     1369
     1370        # Patch linecache.getlines, so we can see the example's source
     1371        # when we're inside the debugger.
     1372        self.save_linecache_getlines = linecache.getlines
     1373        linecache.getlines = self.__patched_linecache_getlines
     1374
     1375        try:
     1376            return self.__run(test, compileflags, out)
     1377        finally:
     1378            sys.stdout = save_stdout
     1379            pdb.set_trace = save_set_trace
     1380            linecache.getlines = self.save_linecache_getlines
     1381            if clear_globs:
     1382                test.globs.clear()
     1383
     1384    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1385    # Summarization
     1386    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1387    def summarize(self, verbose=None):
     1388        """
     1389        Print a summary of all the test cases that have been run by
     1390        this DocTestRunner, and return a tuple `(f, t)`, where `f` is
     1391        the total number of failed examples, and `t` is the total
     1392        number of tried examples.
     1393
     1394        The optional `verbose` argument controls how detailed the
     1395        summary is.  If the verbosity is not specified, then the
     1396        DocTestRunner's verbosity is used.
     1397        """
     1398        if verbose is None:
     1399            verbose = self._verbose
     1400        notests = []
     1401        passed = []
     1402        failed = []
     1403        totalt = totalf = 0
     1404        for x in self._name2ft.items():
     1405            name, (f, t) = x
     1406            assert f <= t
     1407            totalt += t
     1408            totalf += f
     1409            if t == 0:
     1410                notests.append(name)
     1411            elif f == 0:
     1412                passed.append( (name, t) )
     1413            else:
     1414                failed.append(x)
     1415        if verbose:
     1416            if notests:
     1417                print len(notests), "items had no tests:"
     1418                notests.sort()
     1419                for thing in notests:
     1420                    print "   ", thing
     1421            if passed:
     1422                print len(passed), "items passed all tests:"
     1423                passed.sort()
     1424                for thing, count in passed:
     1425                    print " %3d tests in %s" % (count, thing)
     1426        if failed:
     1427            print self.DIVIDER
     1428            print len(failed), "items had failures:"
     1429            failed.sort()
     1430            for thing, (f, t) in failed:
     1431                print " %3d of %3d in %s" % (f, t, thing)
     1432        if verbose:
     1433            print totalt, "tests in", len(self._name2ft), "items."
     1434            print totalt - totalf, "passed and", totalf, "failed."
     1435        if totalf:
     1436            print "***Test Failed***", totalf, "failures."
     1437        elif verbose:
     1438            print "Test passed."
     1439        return totalf, totalt
     1440
     1441    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1442    # Backward compatibility cruft to maintain doctest.master.
     1443    #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     1444    def merge(self, other):
     1445        d = self._name2ft
     1446        for name, (f, t) in other._name2ft.items():
     1447            if name in d:
     1448                print "*** DocTestRunner.merge: '" + name + "' in both" \
     1449                    " testers; summing outcomes."
     1450                f2, t2 = d[name]
     1451                f = f + f2
     1452                t = t + t2
     1453            d[name] = f, t
     1454
     1455class OutputChecker:
     1456    """
     1457    A class used to check the whether the actual output from a doctest
     1458    example matches the expected output.  `OutputChecker` defines two
     1459    methods: `check_output`, which compares a given pair of outputs,
     1460    and returns true if they match; and `output_difference`, which
     1461    returns a string describing the differences between two outputs.
     1462    """
     1463    def check_output(self, want, got, optionflags):
     1464        """
     1465        Return True iff the actual output from an example (`got`)
     1466        matches the expected output (`want`).  These strings are
     1467        always considered to match if they are identical; but
     1468        depending on what option flags the test runner is using,
     1469        several non-exact match types are also possible.  See the
     1470        documentation for `TestRunner` for more information about
     1471        option flags.
     1472        """
     1473        # Handle the common case first, for efficiency:
     1474        # if they're string-identical, always return true.
     1475        if got == want:
     1476            return True
     1477
     1478        # The values True and False replaced 1 and 0 as the return
     1479        # value for boolean comparisons in Python 2.3.
     1480        if not (optionflags & DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1):
     1481            if (got,want) == ("True\n", "1\n"):
     1482                return True
     1483            if (got,want) == ("False\n", "0\n"):
     1484                return True
     1485
     1486        # <BLANKLINE> can be used as a special sequence to signify a
     1487        # blank line, unless the DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE flag is used.
     1488        if not (optionflags & DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE):
     1489            # Replace <BLANKLINE> in want with a blank line.
     1490            want = re.sub('(?m)^%s\s*?$' % re.escape(BLANKLINE_MARKER),
     1491                          '', want)
     1492            # If a line in got contains only spaces, then remove the
     1493            # spaces.
     1494            got = re.sub('(?m)^\s*?$', '', got)
     1495            if got == want:
     1496                return True
     1497
     1498        # This flag causes doctest to ignore any differences in the
     1499        # contents of whitespace strings.  Note that this can be used
     1500        # in conjunction with the ELLIPSIS flag.
     1501        if optionflags & NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE:
     1502            got = ' '.join(got.split())
     1503            want = ' '.join(want.split())
     1504            if got == want:
     1505                return True
     1506
     1507        # The ELLIPSIS flag says to let the sequence "..." in `want`
     1508        # match any substring in `got`.
     1509        if optionflags & ELLIPSIS:
     1510            if _ellipsis_match(want, got):
     1511                return True
     1512
     1513        # We didn't find any match; return false.
     1514        return False
     1515
     1516    # Should we do a fancy diff?
     1517    def _do_a_fancy_diff(self, want, got, optionflags):
     1518        # Not unless they asked for a fancy diff.
     1519        if not optionflags & (REPORT_UDIFF |
     1520                              REPORT_CDIFF |
     1521                              REPORT_NDIFF):
     1522            return False
     1523
     1524        # If expected output uses ellipsis, a meaningful fancy diff is
     1525        # too hard ... or maybe not.  In two real-life failures Tim saw,
     1526        # a diff was a major help anyway, so this is commented out.
     1527        # [todo] _ellipsis_match() knows which pieces do and don't match,
     1528        # and could be the basis for a kick-ass diff in this case.
     1529        ##if optionflags & ELLIPSIS and ELLIPSIS_MARKER in want:
     1530        ##    return False
     1531
     1532        # ndiff does intraline difference marking, so can be useful even
     1533        # for 1-line differences.
     1534        if optionflags & REPORT_NDIFF:
     1535            return True
     1536
     1537        # The other diff types need at least a few lines to be helpful.
     1538        return want.count('\n') > 2 and got.count('\n') > 2
     1539
     1540    def output_difference(self, example, got, optionflags):
     1541        """
     1542        Return a string describing the differences between the
     1543        expected output for a given example (`example`) and the actual
     1544        output (`got`).  `optionflags` is the set of option flags used
     1545        to compare `want` and `got`.
     1546        """
     1547        want = example.want
     1548        # If <BLANKLINE>s are being used, then replace blank lines
     1549        # with <BLANKLINE> in the actual output string.
     1550        if not (optionflags & DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE):
     1551            got = re.sub('(?m)^[ ]*(?=\n)', BLANKLINE_MARKER, got)
     1552
     1553        # Check if we should use diff.
     1554        if self._do_a_fancy_diff(want, got, optionflags):
     1555            # Split want & got into lines.
     1556            want_lines = want.splitlines(True)  # True == keep line ends
     1557            got_lines = got.splitlines(True)
     1558            # Use difflib to find their differences.
     1559            if optionflags & REPORT_UDIFF:
     1560                diff = difflib.unified_diff(want_lines, got_lines, n=2)
     1561                diff = list(diff)[2:] # strip the diff header
     1562                kind = 'unified diff with -expected +actual'
     1563            elif optionflags & REPORT_CDIFF:
     1564                diff = difflib.context_diff(want_lines, got_lines, n=2)
     1565                diff = list(diff)[2:] # strip the diff header
     1566                kind = 'context diff with expected followed by actual'
     1567            elif optionflags & REPORT_NDIFF:
     1568                engine = difflib.Differ(charjunk=difflib.IS_CHARACTER_JUNK)
     1569                diff = list(engine.compare(want_lines, got_lines))
     1570                kind = 'ndiff with -expected +actual'
     1571            else:
     1572                assert 0, 'Bad diff option'
     1573            # Remove trailing whitespace on diff output.
     1574            diff = [line.rstrip() + '\n' for line in diff]
     1575            return 'Differences (%s):\n' % kind + _indent(''.join(diff))
     1576
     1577        # If we're not using diff, then simply list the expected
     1578        # output followed by the actual output.
     1579        if want and got:
     1580            return 'Expected:\n%sGot:\n%s' % (_indent(want), _indent(got))
     1581        elif want:
     1582            return 'Expected:\n%sGot nothing\n' % _indent(want)
     1583        elif got:
     1584            return 'Expected nothing\nGot:\n%s' % _indent(got)
     1585        else:
     1586            return 'Expected nothing\nGot nothing\n'
     1587
     1588class DocTestFailure(Exception):
     1589    """A DocTest example has failed in debugging mode.
     1590
     1591    The exception instance has variables:
     1592
     1593    - test: the DocTest object being run
     1594
     1595    - excample: the Example object that failed
     1596
     1597    - got: the actual output
     1598    """
     1599    def __init__(self, test, example, got):
     1600        self.test = test
     1601        self.example = example
     1602        self.got = got
     1603
     1604    def __str__(self):
     1605        return str(self.test)
     1606
     1607class UnexpectedException(Exception):
     1608    """A DocTest example has encountered an unexpected exception
     1609
     1610    The exception instance has variables:
     1611
     1612    - test: the DocTest object being run
     1613
     1614    - excample: the Example object that failed
     1615
     1616    - exc_info: the exception info
     1617    """
     1618    def __init__(self, test, example, exc_info):
     1619        self.test = test
     1620        self.example = example
     1621        self.exc_info = exc_info
     1622
     1623    def __str__(self):
     1624        return str(self.test)
     1625
     1626class DebugRunner(DocTestRunner):
     1627    r"""Run doc tests but raise an exception as soon as there is a failure.
     1628
     1629       If an unexpected exception occurs, an UnexpectedException is raised.
     1630       It contains the test, the example, and the original exception:
     1631
     1632         >>> runner = DebugRunner(verbose=False)
     1633         >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('>>> raise KeyError\n42',
     1634         ...                                    {}, 'foo', 'foo.py', 0)
     1635         >>> try:
     1636         ...     runner.run(test)
     1637         ... except UnexpectedException, failure:
     1638         ...     pass
     1639
     1640         >>> failure.test is test
     1641         True
     1642
     1643         >>> failure.example.want
     1644         '42\n'
     1645
     1646         >>> exc_info = failure.exc_info
     1647         >>> raise exc_info[0], exc_info[1], exc_info[2]
     1648         Traceback (most recent call last):
     1649         ...
     1650         KeyError
     1651
     1652       We wrap the original exception to give the calling application
     1653       access to the test and example information.
     1654
     1655       If the output doesn't match, then a DocTestFailure is raised:
     1656
     1657         >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('''
     1658         ...      >>> x = 1
     1659         ...      >>> x
     1660         ...      2
     1661         ...      ''', {}, 'foo', 'foo.py', 0)
     1662
     1663         >>> try:
     1664         ...    runner.run(test)
     1665         ... except DocTestFailure, failure:
     1666         ...    pass
     1667
     1668       DocTestFailure objects provide access to the test:
     1669
     1670         >>> failure.test is test
     1671         True
     1672
     1673       As well as to the example:
     1674
     1675         >>> failure.example.want
     1676         '2\n'
     1677
     1678       and the actual output:
     1679
     1680         >>> failure.got
     1681         '1\n'
     1682
     1683       If a failure or error occurs, the globals are left intact:
     1684
     1685         >>> del test.globs['__builtins__']
     1686         >>> test.globs
     1687         {'x': 1}
     1688
     1689         >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('''
     1690         ...      >>> x = 2
     1691         ...      >>> raise KeyError
     1692         ...      ''', {}, 'foo', 'foo.py', 0)
     1693
     1694         >>> runner.run(test)
     1695         Traceback (most recent call last):
     1696         ...
     1697         UnexpectedException: <DocTest foo from foo.py:0 (2 examples)>
     1698
     1699         >>> del test.globs['__builtins__']
     1700         >>> test.globs
     1701         {'x': 2}
     1702
     1703       But the globals are cleared if there is no error:
     1704
     1705         >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('''
     1706         ...      >>> x = 2
     1707         ...      ''', {}, 'foo', 'foo.py', 0)
     1708
     1709         >>> runner.run(test)
     1710         (0, 1)
     1711
     1712         >>> test.globs
     1713         {}
     1714
     1715       """
     1716
     1717    def run(self, test, compileflags=None, out=None, clear_globs=True):
     1718        r = DocTestRunner.run(self, test, compileflags, out, False)
     1719        if clear_globs:
     1720            test.globs.clear()
     1721        return r
     1722
     1723    def report_unexpected_exception(self, out, test, example, exc_info):
     1724        raise UnexpectedException(test, example, exc_info)
     1725
     1726    def report_failure(self, out, test, example, got):
     1727        raise DocTestFailure(test, example, got)
     1728
     1729######################################################################
     1730## 6. Test Functions
     1731######################################################################
     1732# These should be backwards compatible.
     1733
     1734# For backward compatibility, a global instance of a DocTestRunner
     1735# class, updated by testmod.
     1736master = None
     1737
     1738def testmod(m=None, name=None, globs=None, verbose=None, isprivate=None,
     1739            report=True, optionflags=0, extraglobs=None,
     1740            raise_on_error=False, exclude_empty=False):
     1741    """m=None, name=None, globs=None, verbose=None, isprivate=None,
     1742       report=True, optionflags=0, extraglobs=None, raise_on_error=False,
     1743       exclude_empty=False
     1744
     1745    Test examples in docstrings in functions and classes reachable
     1746    from module m (or the current module if m is not supplied), starting
     1747    with m.__doc__.  Unless isprivate is specified, private names
     1748    are not skipped.
     1749
     1750    Also test examples reachable from dict m.__test__ if it exists and is
     1751    not None.  m.__test__ maps names to functions, classes and strings;
     1752    function and class docstrings are tested even if the name is private;
     1753    strings are tested directly, as if they were docstrings.
     1754
     1755    Return (#failures, #tests).
     1756
     1757    See doctest.__doc__ for an overview.
     1758
     1759    Optional keyword arg "name" gives the name of the module; by default
     1760    use m.__name__.
     1761
     1762    Optional keyword arg "globs" gives a dict to be used as the globals
     1763    when executing examples; by default, use m.__dict__.  A copy of this
     1764    dict is actually used for each docstring, so that each docstring's
     1765    examples start with a clean slate.
     1766
     1767    Optional keyword arg "extraglobs" gives a dictionary that should be
     1768    merged into the globals that are used to execute examples.  By
     1769    default, no extra globals are used.  This is new in 2.4.
     1770
     1771    Optional keyword arg "verbose" prints lots of stuff if true, prints
     1772    only failures if false; by default, it's true iff "-v" is in sys.argv.
     1773
     1774    Optional keyword arg "report" prints a summary at the end when true,
     1775    else prints nothing at the end.  In verbose mode, the summary is
     1776    detailed, else very brief (in fact, empty if all tests passed).
     1777
     1778    Optional keyword arg "optionflags" or's together module constants,
     1779    and defaults to 0.  This is new in 2.3.  Possible values (see the
     1780    docs for details):
     1781
     1782        DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1
     1783        DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE
     1784        NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
     1785        ELLIPSIS
     1786        IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
     1787        REPORT_UDIFF
     1788        REPORT_CDIFF
     1789        REPORT_NDIFF
     1790        REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE
     1791
     1792    Optional keyword arg "raise_on_error" raises an exception on the
     1793    first unexpected exception or failure. This allows failures to be
     1794    post-mortem debugged.
     1795
     1796    Deprecated in Python 2.4:
     1797    Optional keyword arg "isprivate" specifies a function used to
     1798    determine whether a name is private.  The default function is
     1799    treat all functions as public.  Optionally, "isprivate" can be
     1800    set to doctest.is_private to skip over functions marked as private
     1801    using the underscore naming convention; see its docs for details.
     1802
     1803    Advanced tomfoolery:  testmod runs methods of a local instance of
     1804    class doctest.Tester, then merges the results into (or creates)
     1805    global Tester instance doctest.master.  Methods of doctest.master
     1806    can be called directly too, if you want to do something unusual.
     1807    Passing report=0 to testmod is especially useful then, to delay
     1808    displaying a summary.  Invoke doctest.master.summarize(verbose)
     1809    when you're done fiddling.
     1810    """
     1811    global master
     1812
     1813    if isprivate is not None:
     1814        warnings.warn("the isprivate argument is deprecated; "
     1815                      "examine DocTestFinder.find() lists instead",
     1816                      DeprecationWarning)
     1817
     1818    # If no module was given, then use __main__.
     1819    if m is None:
     1820        # DWA - m will still be None if this wasn't invoked from the command
     1821        # line, in which case the following TypeError is about as good an error
     1822        # as we should expect
     1823        m = sys.modules.get('__main__')
     1824
     1825    # Check that we were actually given a module.
     1826    if not inspect.ismodule(m):
     1827        raise TypeError("testmod: module required; %r" % (m,))
     1828
     1829    # If no name was given, then use the module's name.
     1830    if name is None:
     1831        name = m.__name__
     1832
     1833    # Find, parse, and run all tests in the given module.
     1834    finder = DocTestFinder(_namefilter=isprivate, exclude_empty=exclude_empty)
     1835
     1836    if raise_on_error:
     1837        runner = DebugRunner(verbose=verbose, optionflags=optionflags)
     1838    else:
     1839        runner = DocTestRunner(verbose=verbose, optionflags=optionflags)
     1840
     1841    for test in finder.find(m, name, globs=globs, extraglobs=extraglobs):
     1842        runner.run(test)
     1843
     1844    if report:
     1845        runner.summarize()
     1846
     1847    if master is None:
     1848        master = runner
     1849    else:
     1850        master.merge(runner)
     1851
     1852    return runner.failures, runner.tries
     1853
     1854def testfile(filename, module_relative=True, name=None, package=None,
     1855             globs=None, verbose=None, report=True, optionflags=0,
     1856             extraglobs=None, raise_on_error=False, parser=DocTestParser()):
     1857    """
     1858    Test examples in the given file.  Return (#failures, #tests).
     1859
     1860    Optional keyword arg "module_relative" specifies how filenames
     1861    should be interpreted:
     1862
     1863      - If "module_relative" is True (the default), then "filename"
     1864         specifies a module-relative path.  By default, this path is
     1865         relative to the calling module's directory; but if the
     1866         "package" argument is specified, then it is relative to that
     1867         package.  To ensure os-independence, "filename" should use
     1868         "/" characters to separate path segments, and should not
     1869         be an absolute path (i.e., it may not begin with "/").
     1870
     1871      - If "module_relative" is False, then "filename" specifies an
     1872        os-specific path.  The path may be absolute or relative (to
     1873        the current working directory).
     1874
     1875    Optional keyword arg "name" gives the name of the test; by default
     1876    use the file's basename.
     1877
     1878    Optional keyword argument "package" is a Python package or the
     1879    name of a Python package whose directory should be used as the
     1880    base directory for a module relative filename.  If no package is
     1881    specified, then the calling module's directory is used as the base
     1882    directory for module relative filenames.  It is an error to
     1883    specify "package" if "module_relative" is False.
     1884
     1885    Optional keyword arg "globs" gives a dict to be used as the globals
     1886    when executing examples; by default, use {}.  A copy of this dict
     1887    is actually used for each docstring, so that each docstring's
     1888    examples start with a clean slate.
     1889
     1890    Optional keyword arg "extraglobs" gives a dictionary that should be
     1891    merged into the globals that are used to execute examples.  By
     1892    default, no extra globals are used.
     1893
     1894    Optional keyword arg "verbose" prints lots of stuff if true, prints
     1895    only failures if false; by default, it's true iff "-v" is in sys.argv.
     1896
     1897    Optional keyword arg "report" prints a summary at the end when true,
     1898    else prints nothing at the end.  In verbose mode, the summary is
     1899    detailed, else very brief (in fact, empty if all tests passed).
     1900
     1901    Optional keyword arg "optionflags" or's together module constants,
     1902    and defaults to 0.  Possible values (see the docs for details):
     1903
     1904        DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1
     1905        DONT_ACCEPT_BLANKLINE
     1906        NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
     1907        ELLIPSIS
     1908        IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
     1909        REPORT_UDIFF
     1910        REPORT_CDIFF
     1911        REPORT_NDIFF
     1912        REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE
     1913
     1914    Optional keyword arg "raise_on_error" raises an exception on the
     1915    first unexpected exception or failure. This allows failures to be
     1916    post-mortem debugged.
     1917
     1918    Optional keyword arg "parser" specifies a DocTestParser (or
     1919    subclass) that should be used to extract tests from the files.
     1920
     1921    Advanced tomfoolery:  testmod runs methods of a local instance of
     1922    class doctest.Tester, then merges the results into (or creates)
     1923    global Tester instance doctest.master.  Methods of doctest.master
     1924    can be called directly too, if you want to do something unusual.
     1925    Passing report=0 to testmod is especially useful then, to delay
     1926    displaying a summary.  Invoke doctest.master.summarize(verbose)
     1927    when you're done fiddling.
     1928    """
     1929    global master
     1930
     1931    if package and not module_relative:
     1932        raise ValueError("Package may only be specified for module-"
     1933                         "relative paths.")
     1934
     1935    # Relativize the path
     1936    if module_relative:
     1937        package = _normalize_module(package)
     1938        filename = _module_relative_path(package, filename)
     1939
     1940    # If no name was given, then use the file's name.
     1941    if name is None:
     1942        name = os.path.basename(filename)
     1943
     1944    # Assemble the globals.
     1945    if globs is None:
     1946        globs = {}
     1947    else:
     1948        globs = globs.copy()
     1949    if extraglobs is not None:
     1950        globs.update(extraglobs)
     1951
     1952    if raise_on_error:
     1953        runner = DebugRunner(verbose=verbose, optionflags=optionflags)
     1954    else:
     1955        runner = DocTestRunner(verbose=verbose, optionflags=optionflags)
     1956
     1957    # Read the file, convert it to a test, and run it.
     1958    s = open(filename).read()
     1959    test = parser.get_doctest(s, globs, name, filename, 0)
     1960    runner.run(test)
     1961
     1962    if report:
     1963        runner.summarize()
     1964
     1965    if master is None:
     1966        master = runner
     1967    else:
     1968        master.merge(runner)
     1969
     1970    return runner.failures, runner.tries
     1971
     1972def run_docstring_examples(f, globs, verbose=False, name="NoName",
     1973                           compileflags=None, optionflags=0):
     1974    """
     1975    Test examples in the given object's docstring (`f`), using `globs`
     1976    as globals.  Optional argument `name` is used in failure messages.
     1977    If the optional argument `verbose` is true, then generate output
     1978    even if there are no failures.
     1979
     1980    `compileflags` gives the set of flags that should be used by the
     1981    Python compiler when running the examples.  If not specified, then
     1982    it will default to the set of future-import flags that apply to
     1983    `globs`.
     1984
     1985    Optional keyword arg `optionflags` specifies options for the
     1986    testing and output.  See the documentation for `testmod` for more
     1987    information.
     1988    """
     1989    # Find, parse, and run all tests in the given module.
     1990    finder = DocTestFinder(verbose=verbose, recurse=False)
     1991    runner = DocTestRunner(verbose=verbose, optionflags=optionflags)
     1992    for test in finder.find(f, name, globs=globs):
     1993        runner.run(test, compileflags=compileflags)
     1994
     1995######################################################################
     1996## 7. Tester
     1997######################################################################
     1998# This is provided only for backwards compatibility.  It's not
     1999# actually used in any way.
     2000
     2001class Tester:
     2002    def __init__(self, mod=None, globs=None, verbose=None,
     2003                 isprivate=None, optionflags=0):
     2004
     2005        warnings.warn("class Tester is deprecated; "
     2006                      "use class doctest.DocTestRunner instead",
     2007                      DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
     2008        if mod is None and globs is None:
     2009            raise TypeError("Tester.__init__: must specify mod or globs")
     2010        if mod is not None and not inspect.ismodule(mod):
     2011            raise TypeError("Tester.__init__: mod must be a module; %r" %
     2012                            (mod,))
     2013        if globs is None:
     2014            globs = mod.__dict__
     2015        self.globs = globs
     2016
     2017        self.verbose = verbose
     2018        self.isprivate = isprivate
     2019        self.optionflags = optionflags
     2020        self.testfinder = DocTestFinder(_namefilter=isprivate)
     2021        self.testrunner = DocTestRunner(verbose=verbose,
     2022                                        optionflags=optionflags)
     2023
     2024    def runstring(self, s, name):
     2025        test = DocTestParser().get_doctest(s, self.globs, name, None, None)
     2026        if self.verbose:
     2027            print "Running string", name
     2028        (f,t) = self.testrunner.run(test)
     2029        if self.verbose:
     2030            print f, "of", t, "examples failed in string", name
     2031        return (f,t)
     2032
     2033    def rundoc(self, object, name=None, module=None):
     2034        f = t = 0
     2035        tests = self.testfinder.find(object, name, module=module,
     2036                                     globs=self.globs)
     2037        for test in tests:
     2038            (f2, t2) = self.testrunner.run(test)
     2039            (f,t) = (f+f2, t+t2)
     2040        return (f,t)
     2041
     2042    def rundict(self, d, name, module=None):
     2043        import new
     2044        m = new.module(name)
     2045        m.__dict__.update(d)
     2046        if module is None:
     2047            module = False
     2048        return self.rundoc(m, name, module)
     2049
     2050    def run__test__(self, d, name):
     2051        import new
     2052        m = new.module(name)
     2053        m.__test__ = d
     2054        return self.rundoc(m, name)
     2055
     2056    def summarize(self, verbose=None):
     2057        return self.testrunner.summarize(verbose)
     2058
     2059    def merge(self, other):
     2060        self.testrunner.merge(other.testrunner)
     2061
     2062######################################################################
     2063## 8. Unittest Support
     2064######################################################################
     2065
     2066_unittest_reportflags = 0
     2067
     2068def set_unittest_reportflags(flags):
     2069    """Sets the unittest option flags.
     2070
     2071    The old flag is returned so that a runner could restore the old
     2072    value if it wished to:
     2073
     2074      >>> old = _unittest_reportflags
     2075      >>> set_unittest_reportflags(REPORT_NDIFF |
     2076      ...                          REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE) == old
     2077      True
     2078
     2079      >>> import doctest
     2080      >>> doctest._unittest_reportflags == (REPORT_NDIFF |
     2081      ...                                   REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE)
     2082      True
     2083
     2084    Only reporting flags can be set:
     2085
     2086      >>> set_unittest_reportflags(ELLIPSIS)
     2087      Traceback (most recent call last):
     2088      ...
     2089      ValueError: ('Only reporting flags allowed', 8)
     2090
     2091      >>> set_unittest_reportflags(old) == (REPORT_NDIFF |
     2092      ...                                   REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE)
     2093      True
     2094    """
     2095    global _unittest_reportflags
     2096
     2097    if (flags & REPORTING_FLAGS) != flags:
     2098        raise ValueError("Only reporting flags allowed", flags)
     2099    old = _unittest_reportflags
     2100    _unittest_reportflags = flags
     2101    return old
     2102
     2103
     2104class DocTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
     2105
     2106    def __init__(self, test, optionflags=0, setUp=None, tearDown=None,
     2107                 checker=None, runner=DocTestRunner):
     2108
     2109        unittest.TestCase.__init__(self)
     2110        self._dt_optionflags = optionflags
     2111        self._dt_checker = checker
     2112        self._dt_test = test
     2113        self._dt_setUp = setUp
     2114        self._dt_tearDown = tearDown
     2115        self._dt_runner = runner
     2116
     2117    def setUp(self):
     2118        test = self._dt_test
     2119
     2120        if self._dt_setUp is not None:
     2121            self._dt_setUp(test)
     2122
     2123    def tearDown(self):
     2124        test = self._dt_test
     2125
     2126        if self._dt_tearDown is not None:
     2127            self._dt_tearDown(test)
     2128
     2129        test.globs.clear()
     2130
     2131    def runTest(self):
     2132        test = self._dt_test
     2133        old = sys.stdout
     2134        new = StringIO()
     2135        optionflags = self._dt_optionflags
     2136
     2137        if not (optionflags & REPORTING_FLAGS):
     2138            # The option flags don't include any reporting flags,
     2139            # so add the default reporting flags
     2140            optionflags |= _unittest_reportflags
     2141
     2142        runner = self._dt_runner(optionflags=optionflags,
     2143                                 checker=self._dt_checker, verbose=False)
     2144
     2145        try:
     2146            runner.DIVIDER = "-"*70
     2147            failures, tries = runner.run(
     2148                test, out=new.write, clear_globs=False)
     2149        finally:
     2150            sys.stdout = old
     2151
     2152        if failures:
     2153            raise self.failureException(self.format_failure(new.getvalue()))
     2154
     2155    def format_failure(self, err):
     2156        test = self._dt_test
     2157        if test.lineno is None:
     2158            lineno = 'unknown line number'
     2159        else:
     2160            lineno = '%s' % test.lineno
     2161        lname = '.'.join(test.name.split('.')[-1:])
     2162        return ('Failed doctest test for %s\n'
     2163                '  File "%s", line %s, in %s\n\n%s'
     2164                % (test.name, test.filename, lineno, lname, err)
     2165                )
     2166
     2167    def debug(self):
     2168        r"""Run the test case without results and without catching exceptions
     2169
     2170           The unit test framework includes a debug method on test cases
     2171           and test suites to support post-mortem debugging.  The test code
     2172           is run in such a way that errors are not caught.  This way a
     2173           caller can catch the errors and initiate post-mortem debugging.
     2174
     2175           The DocTestCase provides a debug method that raises
     2176           UnexpectedException errors if there is an unexepcted
     2177           exception:
     2178
     2179             >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('>>> raise KeyError\n42',
     2180             ...                {}, 'foo', 'foo.py', 0)
     2181             >>> case = DocTestCase(test)
     2182             >>> try:
     2183             ...     case.debug()
     2184             ... except UnexpectedException, failure:
     2185             ...     pass
     2186
     2187           The UnexpectedException contains the test, the example, and
     2188           the original exception:
     2189
     2190             >>> failure.test is test
     2191             True
     2192
     2193             >>> failure.example.want
     2194             '42\n'
     2195
     2196             >>> exc_info = failure.exc_info
     2197             >>> raise exc_info[0], exc_info[1], exc_info[2]
     2198             Traceback (most recent call last):
     2199             ...
     2200             KeyError
     2201
     2202           If the output doesn't match, then a DocTestFailure is raised:
     2203
     2204             >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('''
     2205             ...      >>> x = 1
     2206             ...      >>> x
     2207             ...      2
     2208             ...      ''', {}, 'foo', 'foo.py', 0)
     2209             >>> case = DocTestCase(test)
     2210
     2211             >>> try:
     2212             ...    case.debug()
     2213             ... except DocTestFailure, failure:
     2214             ...    pass
     2215
     2216           DocTestFailure objects provide access to the test:
     2217
     2218             >>> failure.test is test
     2219             True
     2220
     2221           As well as to the example:
     2222
     2223             >>> failure.example.want
     2224             '2\n'
     2225
     2226           and the actual output:
     2227
     2228             >>> failure.got
     2229             '1\n'
     2230
     2231           """
     2232
     2233        self.setUp()
     2234        runner = DebugRunner(optionflags=self._dt_optionflags,
     2235                             checker=self._dt_checker, verbose=False)
     2236        runner.run(self._dt_test)
     2237        self.tearDown()
     2238
     2239    def id(self):
     2240        return self._dt_test.name
     2241
     2242    def __repr__(self):
     2243        name = self._dt_test.name.split('.')
     2244        return "%s (%s)" % (name[-1], '.'.join(name[:-1]))
     2245
     2246    __str__ = __repr__
     2247
     2248    def shortDescription(self):
     2249        return "Doctest: " + self._dt_test.name
     2250
     2251def DocTestSuite(module=None, globs=None, extraglobs=None, test_finder=None,
     2252                 test_class=DocTestCase, **options):
     2253    """
     2254    Convert doctest tests for a module to a unittest test suite.
     2255
     2256    This converts each documentation string in a module that
     2257    contains doctest tests to a unittest test case.  If any of the
     2258    tests in a doc string fail, then the test case fails.  An exception
     2259    is raised showing the name of the file containing the test and a
     2260    (sometimes approximate) line number.
     2261
     2262    The `module` argument provides the module to be tested.  The argument
     2263    can be either a module or a module name.
     2264
     2265    If no argument is given, the calling module is used.
     2266
     2267    A number of options may be provided as keyword arguments:
     2268
     2269    setUp
     2270      A set-up function.  This is called before running the
     2271      tests in each file. The setUp function will be passed a DocTest
     2272      object.  The setUp function can access the test globals as the
     2273      globs attribute of the test passed.
     2274
     2275    tearDown
     2276      A tear-down function.  This is called after running the
     2277      tests in each file.  The tearDown function will be passed a DocTest
     2278      object.  The tearDown function can access the test globals as the
     2279      globs attribute of the test passed.
     2280
     2281    globs
     2282      A dictionary containing initial global variables for the tests.
     2283
     2284    optionflags
     2285       A set of doctest option flags expressed as an integer.
     2286    """
     2287
     2288    if test_finder is None:
     2289        test_finder = DocTestFinder()
     2290
     2291    module = _normalize_module(module)
     2292    tests = test_finder.find(module, globs=globs, extraglobs=extraglobs)
     2293    if globs is None:
     2294        globs = module.__dict__
     2295    if not tests:
     2296        # Why do we want to do this? Because it reveals a bug that might
     2297        # otherwise be hidden.
     2298        raise ValueError(module, "has no tests")
     2299
     2300    tests.sort()
     2301    suite = unittest.TestSuite()
     2302    for test in tests:
     2303        if len(test.examples) == 0:
     2304            continue
     2305        if not test.filename:
     2306            filename = module.__file__
     2307            if filename[-4:] in (".pyc", ".pyo"):
     2308                filename = filename[:-1]
     2309            test.filename = filename
     2310        suite.addTest(test_class(test, **options))
     2311
     2312    return suite
     2313
     2314class DocFileCase(DocTestCase):
     2315
     2316    def id(self):
     2317        return '_'.join(self._dt_test.name.split('.'))
     2318
     2319    def __repr__(self):
     2320        return self._dt_test.filename
     2321    __str__ = __repr__
     2322
     2323    def format_failure(self, err):
     2324        return ('Failed doctest test for %s\n  File "%s", line 0\n\n%s'
     2325                % (self._dt_test.name, self._dt_test.filename, err)
     2326                )
     2327
     2328def DocFileTest(path, module_relative=True, package=None,
     2329                globs=None, parser=DocTestParser(), **options):
     2330    if globs is None:
     2331        globs = {}
     2332
     2333    if package and not module_relative:
     2334        raise ValueError("Package may only be specified for module-"
     2335                         "relative paths.")
     2336
     2337    # Relativize the path.
     2338    if module_relative:
     2339        package = _normalize_module(package)
     2340        path = _module_relative_path(package, path)
     2341
     2342    # Find the file and read it.
     2343    name = os.path.basename(path)
     2344    doc = open(path).read()
     2345
     2346    # Convert it to a test, and wrap it in a DocFileCase.
     2347    test = parser.get_doctest(doc, globs, name, path, 0)
     2348    return DocFileCase(test, **options)
     2349
     2350def DocFileSuite(*paths, **kw):
     2351    """A unittest suite for one or more doctest files.
     2352
     2353    The path to each doctest file is given as a string; the
     2354    interpretation of that string depends on the keyword argument
     2355    "module_relative".
     2356
     2357    A number of options may be provided as keyword arguments:
     2358
     2359    module_relative
     2360      If "module_relative" is True, then the given file paths are
     2361      interpreted as os-independent module-relative paths.  By
     2362      default, these paths are relative to the calling module's
     2363      directory; but if the "package" argument is specified, then
     2364      they are relative to that package.  To ensure os-independence,
     2365      "filename" should use "/" characters to separate path
     2366      segments, and may not be an absolute path (i.e., it may not
     2367      begin with "/").
     2368
     2369      If "module_relative" is False, then the given file paths are
     2370      interpreted as os-specific paths.  These paths may be absolute
     2371      or relative (to the current working directory).
     2372
     2373    package
     2374      A Python package or the name of a Python package whose directory
     2375      should be used as the base directory for module relative paths.
     2376      If "package" is not specified, then the calling module's
     2377      directory is used as the base directory for module relative
     2378      filenames.  It is an error to specify "package" if
     2379      "module_relative" is False.
     2380
     2381    setUp
     2382      A set-up function.  This is called before running the
     2383      tests in each file. The setUp function will be passed a DocTest
     2384      object.  The setUp function can access the test globals as the
     2385      globs attribute of the test passed.
     2386
     2387    tearDown
     2388      A tear-down function.  This is called after running the
     2389      tests in each file.  The tearDown function will be passed a DocTest
     2390      object.  The tearDown function can access the test globals as the
     2391      globs attribute of the test passed.
     2392
     2393    globs
     2394      A dictionary containing initial global variables for the tests.
     2395
     2396    optionflags
     2397      A set of doctest option flags expressed as an integer.
     2398
     2399    parser
     2400      A DocTestParser (or subclass) that should be used to extract
     2401      tests from the files.
     2402    """
     2403    suite = unittest.TestSuite()
     2404
     2405    # We do this here so that _normalize_module is called at the right
     2406    # level.  If it were called in DocFileTest, then this function
     2407    # would be the caller and we might guess the package incorrectly.
     2408    if kw.get('module_relative', True):
     2409        kw['package'] = _normalize_module(kw.get('package'))
     2410
     2411    for path in paths:
     2412        suite.addTest(DocFileTest(path, **kw))
     2413
     2414    return suite
     2415
     2416######################################################################
     2417## 9. Debugging Support
     2418######################################################################
     2419
     2420def script_from_examples(s):
     2421    r"""Extract script from text with examples.
     2422
     2423       Converts text with examples to a Python script.  Example input is
     2424       converted to regular code.  Example output and all other words
     2425       are converted to comments:
     2426
     2427       >>> text = '''
     2428       ...       Here are examples of simple math.
     2429       ...
     2430       ...           Python has super accurate integer addition
     2431       ...
     2432       ...           >>> 2 + 2
     2433       ...           5
     2434       ...
     2435       ...           And very friendly error messages:
     2436       ...
     2437       ...           >>> 1/0
     2438       ...           To Infinity
     2439       ...           And
     2440       ...           Beyond
     2441       ...
     2442       ...           You can use logic if you want:
     2443       ...
     2444       ...           >>> if 0:
     2445       ...           ...    blah
     2446       ...           ...    blah
     2447       ...           ...
     2448       ...
     2449       ...           Ho hum
     2450       ...           '''
     2451
     2452       >>> print script_from_examples(text)
     2453       # Here are examples of simple math.
     2454       #
     2455       #     Python has super accurate integer addition
     2456       #
     2457       2 + 2
     2458       # Expected:
     2459       ## 5
     2460       #
     2461       #     And very friendly error messages:
     2462       #
     2463       1/0
     2464       # Expected:
     2465       ## To Infinity
     2466       ## And
     2467       ## Beyond
     2468       #
     2469       #     You can use logic if you want:
     2470       #
     2471       if 0:
     2472          blah
     2473          blah
     2474       #
     2475       #     Ho hum
     2476       """
     2477    output = []
     2478    for piece in DocTestParser().parse(s):
     2479        if isinstance(piece, Example):
     2480            # Add the example's source code (strip trailing NL)
     2481            output.append(piece.source[:-1])
     2482            # Add the expected output:
     2483            want = piece.want
     2484            if want:
     2485                output.append('# Expected:')
     2486                output += ['## '+l for l in want.split('\n')[:-1]]
     2487        else:
     2488            # Add non-example text.
     2489            output += [_comment_line(l)
     2490                       for l in piece.split('\n')[:-1]]
     2491
     2492    # Trim junk on both ends.
     2493    while output and output[-1] == '#':
     2494        output.pop()
     2495    while output and output[0] == '#':
     2496        output.pop(0)
     2497    # Combine the output, and return it.
     2498    return '\n'.join(output)
     2499
     2500def testsource(module, name):
     2501    """Extract the test sources from a doctest docstring as a script.
     2502
     2503    Provide the module (or dotted name of the module) containing the
     2504    test to be debugged and the name (within the module) of the object
     2505    with the doc string with tests to be debugged.
     2506    """
     2507    module = _normalize_module(module)
     2508    tests = DocTestFinder().find(module)
     2509    test = [t for t in tests if t.name == name]
     2510    if not test:
     2511        raise ValueError(name, "not found in tests")
     2512    test = test[0]
     2513    testsrc = script_from_examples(test.docstring)
     2514    return testsrc
     2515
     2516def debug_src(src, pm=False, globs=None):
     2517    """Debug a single doctest docstring, in argument `src`'"""
     2518    testsrc = script_from_examples(src)
     2519    debug_script(testsrc, pm, globs)
     2520
     2521def debug_script(src, pm=False, globs=None):
     2522    "Debug a test script.  `src` is the script, as a string."
     2523    import pdb
     2524
     2525    # Note that tempfile.NameTemporaryFile() cannot be used.  As the
     2526    # docs say, a file so created cannot be opened by name a second time
     2527    # on modern Windows boxes, and execfile() needs to open it.
     2528    srcfilename = tempfile.mktemp(".py", "doctestdebug")
     2529    f = open(srcfilename, 'w')
     2530    f.write(src)
     2531    f.close()
     2532
     2533    try:
     2534        if globs:
     2535            globs = globs.copy()
     2536        else:
     2537            globs = {}
     2538
     2539        if pm:
     2540            try:
     2541                execfile(srcfilename, globs, globs)
     2542            except:
     2543                print sys.exc_info()[1]
     2544                pdb.post_mortem(sys.exc_info()[2])
     2545        else:
     2546            # Note that %r is vital here.  '%s' instead can, e.g., cause
     2547            # backslashes to get treated as metacharacters on Windows.
     2548            pdb.run("execfile(%r)" % srcfilename, globs, globs)
     2549
     2550    finally:
     2551        os.remove(srcfilename)
     2552
     2553def debug(module, name, pm=False):
     2554    """Debug a single doctest docstring.
     2555
     2556    Provide the module (or dotted name of the module) containing the
     2557    test to be debugged and the name (within the module) of the object
     2558    with the docstring with tests to be debugged.
     2559    """
     2560    module = _normalize_module(module)
     2561    testsrc = testsource(module, name)
     2562    debug_script(testsrc, pm, module.__dict__)
     2563
     2564######################################################################
     2565## 10. Example Usage
     2566######################################################################
     2567class _TestClass:
     2568    """
     2569    A pointless class, for sanity-checking of docstring testing.
     2570
     2571    Methods:
     2572        square()
     2573        get()
     2574
     2575    >>> _TestClass(13).get() + _TestClass(-12).get()
     2576    1
     2577    >>> hex(_TestClass(13).square().get())
     2578    '0xa9'
     2579    """
     2580
     2581    def __init__(self, val):
     2582        """val -> _TestClass object with associated value val.
     2583
     2584        >>> t = _TestClass(123)
     2585        >>> print t.get()
     2586        123
     2587        """
     2588
     2589        self.val = val
     2590
     2591    def square(self):
     2592        """square() -> square TestClass's associated value
     2593
     2594        >>> _TestClass(13).square().get()
     2595        169
     2596        """
     2597
     2598        self.val = self.val ** 2
     2599        return self
     2600
     2601    def get(self):
     2602        """get() -> return TestClass's associated value.
     2603
     2604        >>> x = _TestClass(-42)
     2605        >>> print x.get()
     2606        -42
     2607        """
     2608
     2609        return self.val
     2610
     2611__test__ = {"_TestClass": _TestClass,
     2612            "string": r"""
     2613                      Example of a string object, searched as-is.
     2614                      >>> x = 1; y = 2
     2615                      >>> x + y, x * y
     2616                      (3, 2)
     2617                      """,
     2618
     2619            "bool-int equivalence": r"""
     2620                                    In 2.2, boolean expressions displayed
     2621                                    0 or 1.  By default, we still accept
     2622                                    them.  This can be disabled by passing
     2623                                    DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1 to the new
     2624                                    optionflags argument.
     2625                                    >>> 4 == 4
     2626                                    1
     2627                                    >>> 4 == 4
     2628                                    True
     2629                                    >>> 4 > 4
     2630                                    0
     2631                                    >>> 4 > 4
     2632                                    False
     2633                                    """,
     2634
     2635            "blank lines": r"""
     2636                Blank lines can be marked with <BLANKLINE>:
     2637                    >>> print 'foo\n\nbar\n'
     2638                    foo
     2639                    <BLANKLINE>
     2640                    bar
     2641                    <BLANKLINE>
     2642            """,
     2643
     2644            "ellipsis": r"""
     2645                If the ellipsis flag is used, then '...' can be used to
     2646                elide substrings in the desired output:
     2647                    >>> print range(1000) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
     2648                    [0, 1, 2, ..., 999]
     2649            """,
     2650
     2651            "whitespace normalization": r"""
     2652                If the whitespace normalization flag is used, then
     2653                differences in whitespace are ignored.
     2654                    >>> print range(30) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
     2655                    [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
     2656                     15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
     2657                     27, 28, 29]
     2658            """,
     2659           }
     2660
     2661def _test():
     2662    r = unittest.TextTestRunner()
     2663    r.run(DocTestSuite())
     2664
     2665if __name__ == "__main__":
     2666    _test()
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