Ticket #16671: tutorial05.14.diff

File tutorial05.14.diff, 14.9 KB (added by Tim Graham, 8 years ago)
  • AUTHORS

    diff --git a/AUTHORS b/AUTHORS
    index 5fa9578..151e8a4 100644
    a b answer newbie questions, and generally made Django that much better: 
    378378    Christian Metts
    379379    michal@plovarna.cz
    380380    Slawek Mikula <slawek dot mikula at gmail dot com>
     381    Katie Miller <katie@sub50.com>
    381382    Shawn Milochik <shawn@milochik.com>
    382383    mitakummaa@gmail.com
    383384    Taylor Mitchell <taylor.mitchell@gmail.com>
    answer newbie questions, and generally made Django that much better: 
    506507    Johan C. Stöver <johan@nilling.nl>
    507508    Nowell Strite <http://nowell.strite.org/>
    508509    Thomas Stromberg <tstromberg@google.com>
     510    Ben Sturmfels <ben@sturm.com.au>
    509511    Pascal Varet
    510512    SuperJared
    511513    Radek Švarz <http://www.svarz.cz/translate/>
  • docs/index.txt

    diff --git a/docs/index.txt b/docs/index.txt
    index ca08301..14c311b 100644
    a b Are you new to Django or to programming? This is the place to start! 
    4444  :doc:`Part 1 <intro/tutorial01>` |
    4545  :doc:`Part 2 <intro/tutorial02>` |
    4646  :doc:`Part 3 <intro/tutorial03>` |
    47   :doc:`Part 4 <intro/tutorial04>`
     47  :doc:`Part 4 <intro/tutorial04>` |
     48  :doc:`Part 5 <intro/tutorial05>`
    4849
    4950The model layer
    5051===============
  • docs/intro/index.txt

    diff --git a/docs/intro/index.txt b/docs/intro/index.txt
    index 19290a5..186727b 100644
    a b place: read this material to quickly get up and running. 
    1313   tutorial02
    1414   tutorial03
    1515   tutorial04
     16   tutorial05
    1617   whatsnext
    1718   
    1819.. seealso::
    place: read this material to quickly get up and running. 
    3334    .. _list of Python resources for non-programmers: http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide/NonProgrammers
    3435    .. _dive into python: http://diveintopython.net/
    3536    .. _dead-tree version: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1590593561/ref=nosim/jacobian20
    36     .. _books about Python: http://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonBooks
    37  No newline at end of file
     37    .. _books about Python: http://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonBooks
  • docs/intro/tutorial04.txt

    diff --git a/docs/intro/tutorial04.txt b/docs/intro/tutorial04.txt
    index 31680ea..737255f 100644
    a b Run the server, and use your new polling app based on generic views. 
    331331For full details on generic views, see the :doc:`generic views documentation
    332332</topics/class-based-views/index>`.
    333333
    334 Coming soon
    335 ===========
    336 
    337 The tutorial ends here for the time being. Future installments of the tutorial
    338 will cover:
    339 
    340 * Advanced form processing
    341 * Using the RSS framework
    342 * Using the cache framework
    343 * Using the comments framework
    344 * Advanced admin features: Permissions
    345 * Advanced admin features: Custom JavaScript
    346 
    347 In the meantime, you might want to check out some pointers on :doc:`where to go
    348 from here </intro/whatsnext>`
     334When you're comfortable, read :doc:`part 5 of this tutorial
     335</intro/tutorial05>` to learn about turning Polls into a reusable app.
  • new file docs/intro/tutorial05.txt

    diff --git a/docs/intro/tutorial05.txt b/docs/intro/tutorial05.txt
    new file mode 100644
    index 0000000..209aad6
    - +  
     1=====================================
     2Writing your first Django app, part 5
     3=====================================
     4
     5This tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 4 </intro/tutorial04>` left
     6off. We'll be turning our Web-poll into a standalone Python package you can
     7reuse in new projects and share with other people.
     8
     9If you haven't recently completed Tutorials 1–4, we encourage you to review
     10these so that your example project matches the one described below.
     11
     12.. Outline:
     13
     14.. * motivation
     15..     * what is a python package?
     16..     * what is a django app?
     17..     * what is a reusable app?
     18
     19.. * preparing
     20..     * moving templates into your app
     21..     * parent directory
     22..     * adding package boilerplate
     23..     * link to packaging docs
     24..     * package builder
     25
     26.. * using the package
     27..     * how to install
     28
     29.. * publishing
     30..     * options for publishing
     31..     * link to docs on PyPI
     32
     33Reusability matters
     34===================
     35
     36It's a lot of work to design, build, test and maintain a web application. Many
     37Python and Django projects share common problems. Wouldn't it be great if we
     38could save some of this repeated work?
     39
     40Reusability is the way of life in Python. `The Python Package Index (PyPI)
     41<http://guide.python-distribute.org/contributing.html#pypi-info>`_ has a vast
     42range of packages you can use in your own Python programs. Django itself is
     43also just a Python package. This means that you can take existing Python
     44packages or Django apps and compose them into your own web project. You only
     45need to write the parts that make your project unique.
     46
     47Let's say you were starting a new project that needed a polls app like the one
     48we've been working on. How do you make this app reusable? Luckily, you're well
     49on the way already. In :doc:`Tutorial 3 </intro/tutorial03>`, we began by
     50decoupling polls from the project-level URLconf. In this tutorial, we'll take
     51further steps to make the app easy to use in new projects and ready to publish
     52for others to install and use.
     53
     54.. admonition:: Package? App?
     55
     56    A Python `package <http://docs.python.org/tutorial/modules.html#packages>`_
     57    provides a way of grouping related Python code for easy reuse. A package contains
     58    one or more files of Python code (also known as "modules").
     59
     60    A package can be imported with ``import foo.bar`` or ``from foo import
     61    bar``. For a directory (like ``polls``) to form a package, it must contain a
     62    special file ``__init__.py``, even if this file is empty.
     63
     64    A Django *app* is just a Python package that is specifically intended for
     65    use in a Django project. An app may also use common Django conventions,
     66    such as having a ``models.py`` file.
     67
     68    Later on we use the term *packaging* to describe the process of making a
     69    Python package easy for others to install. It can be a little confusing, we
     70    know.
     71
     72Completing your reusable app
     73============================
     74
     75After the previous tutorials, our project should look like this::
     76
     77    mysite/
     78        manage.py
     79        mysite/
     80            __init__.py
     81            settings.py
     82            urls.py
     83            wsgi.py
     84        polls/
     85            admin.py
     86            __init__.py
     87            models.py
     88            tests.py
     89            urls.py
     90            views.py
     91
     92You also have a directory somewhere called ``mytemplates`` which you created in
     93:doc:`Tutorial 2 </intro/tutorial02>`. You specified its location in the
     94TEMPLATE_DIRS setting. This directory should look like this::
     95
     96    mytemplates/
     97        admin/
     98            base_site.html
     99        polls/
     100            detail.html
     101            index.html
     102            results.html
     103
     104The polls app is already a Python package, thanks to the ``polls/__init__.py``
     105file. That's a great start, but we can't just pick up this package and drop it
     106into a new project. The polls templates are currently stored in the
     107project-wide ``mytemplates`` directory. To make the app self-contained, it should also contain the necessary templates.
     108
     109Inside the ``polls`` app, create a new ``templates`` directory. Now move the
     110``polls`` template directory from ``mytemplates`` into the new
     111``templates``. Your project should now look like this::
     112
     113    mysite/
     114        manage.py
     115        mysite/
     116            __init__.py
     117            settings.py
     118            urls.py
     119            wsgi.py
     120        polls/
     121            admin.py
     122            __init__.py
     123            models.py
     124            templates/
     125                polls/
     126                    detail.html
     127                    index.html
     128                    results.html
     129            tests.py
     130            urls.py
     131            views.py
     132
     133Your project-wide templates directory should now look like this::
     134
     135    mytemplates/
     136        admin/
     137            base_site.html
     138
     139Looking good! Now would be a good time to confirm that your polls application
     140still works correctly.
     141
     142The ``polls`` directory could now be copied into a new Django project and
     143immediately reused. It's not quite ready to be published though. For that, we
     144need to package the app to make it easy for others to install.
     145
     146.. admonition:: Why nested?
     147
     148   Why create a ``polls`` directory under ``templates`` when we're
     149   already inside the polls app? This directory is needed to avoid conflicts in
     150   Django's ``app_directories`` template loader.
     151
     152Packaging your app
     153==================
     154
     155Python *packaging* refers to preparing your app in a specific format that can
     156be easily installed and used. Django itself is packaged very much like
     157this. For a small app like polls, this process isn't too difficult.
     158
     1591. Firstly, create a parent directory for ``polls``, outside of your Django
     160   project. Call this directory ``django-polls``.
     161
     1622. Move the ``polls`` directory into the ``django-polls`` directory.
     163
     1643. Create a file ``django-polls/README.txt`` with the following contents::
     165
     166       =====
     167       Polls
     168       =====
     169
     170       Polls is a simple Django app to conduct Web-based polls. For each
     171       question, visitors can choose between a fixed number of answers.
     172
     173       Detailed documentation is in the "docs" directory.
     174
     175       Quick start
     176       -----------
     177
     178       1. Add "polls" to your INSTALLED_APPS setting like this::
     179
     180              INSTALLED_APPS = (
     181                  ...
     182                  'polls',
     183              )
     184
     185       2. Include the polls URLconf in your project urls.py like this::
     186
     187              (r'^polls/', include('polls.urls')),
     188
     189       3. Run `python manage.py syncdb` to create the polls models.
     190
     191       4. Start the development server and visit http://127.0.0.1:8000/admin/
     192          to create a poll (you'll need the Admin app enabled).
     193
     194       5. Visit http://127.0.0.1:8000/polls/ to participate in the poll.
     195
     196
     1975. Create a file ``django-polls/setup.py`` with the following contents::
     198
     199    from distutils.core import setup
     200
     201    setup(
     202        name='django-polls',
     203        version='0.1',
     204        packages=['polls'],
     205        package_data={'polls': ['templates/polls/*']},
     206        license='',
     207        long_description=open('README.txt').read(),
     208        url='http://www.example.com/',
     209        author='Your Name',
     210        author_email='yourname@example.com',
     211    )
     212
     2136. Only a limited set of files are included in the package by default. To also
     214   include the templates, create a file ``django-polls/MANIFEST.in`` with
     215   the following contents::
     216
     217       recursive-include polls/templates *
     218
     2197. It's optional, but recommended, to include detailed documentation with your
     220   app. Create an empty directory ``django-polls/docs`` for future
     221   documentation. Add an additional line to ``django-polls/MANIFEST.in``::
     222
     223       recursive-include docs *
     224
     225   Note that the ``docs`` directory won't be included in your package unless you
     226   add some files to it.
     227
     2288. Try building your package with ``python setup.py sdist`` (run from inside
     229   ``django-polls``). This creates a directory called ``dist`` and builds your
     230   new package, ``django-polls-0.1.tar.gz``.
     231
     232For more information on packaging, see `The Hitchhiker's Guide to Packaging
     233<http://guide.python-distribute.org/quickstart.html>`_.
     234
     235Using your own package
     236======================
     237
     238Since we moved the ``polls`` directory out of the project, it's no longer
     239working. We'll now fix this by installing our new ``django-polls`` package.
     240
     241.. admonition:: Installing as a system library
     242
     243   The following steps install ``django-polls`` as a system library. In
     244   general, it's best to avoid messing with your system libraries to avoid
     245   breaking things. For this simple example though, the risk is low and it will
     246   help with understanding packaging. We'll explain how to uninstall in
     247   step 4.
     248
     249   For experienced users, a neater way to manage your packages is to use
     250   "virtualenv" (see below).
     251
     2521. Inside ``django-polls/dist``, untar the new package
     253   ``django-polls-0.1.tar.gz`` (e.g. ``tar xzvf django-polls-0.1.tar.gz``). If
     254   you're using Windows, you can download the command-line tool bsdtar_ to do
     255   this, or you can use a GUI-based tool such as 7-zip_.
     256
     2572. Change into the directory created in step 1 (e.g. ``cd django-polls``).
     258
     2593. If you're using GNU/Linux, Mac OS X or some other flavor of Unix, enter the
     260   command ``sudo python setup.py install`` at the shell prompt.  If you're
     261   using Windows, start up a command shell with administrator privileges and
     262   run the command ``setup.py install``.
     263
     264   With luck, your Django project should now work correctly again. Run the
     265   server again to confirm this.
     266
     2674. To uninstall the package, delete the polls-related directories and files from
     268   your system libraries. To find them, run the following at your Python prompt.
     269
     270   >>> import polls
     271   >>> polls
     272   <module 'polls' from '/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/polls/__init__.pyc'>
     273
     274   In this case, we would find the polls-related files and directories in
     275   ``/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/``. Your location may be different.
     276
     277.. _bsdtar: http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/bsdtar.htm
     278.. _7-zip: http://www.7-zip.org/
     279
     280Publishing your app
     281===================
     282
     283Now that we've packaged and tested ``django-polls``, it's ready to share with
     284the world! If this wasn't just an example, you could now:
     285
     286* Email the package to a friend.
     287
     288* Upload the package on your Web site.
     289
     290* Post the package on a public repository, such as `The Python Package Index
     291  (PyPI) <http://guide.python-distribute.org/contributing.html#pypi-info>`_.
     292
     293For more information on PyPI, see the `Quickstart
     294<http://guide.python-distribute.org/quickstart.html#register-your-package-with-the-python-package-index-pypi>`_
     295section of The Hitchhiker's Guide to Packaging. One detail this guide mentions
     296is choosing the license under which your code is distributed.
     297
     298Installing Python packages with virtualenv
     299==========================================
     300
     301Earlier, we installed the polls app as a system library. This has some
     302disadvantages:
     303
     304* Modifying the system libraries can affect other Python software on your
     305  system.
     306
     307* You won't be able to run multiple versions of this package (or others with
     308  the same name).
     309
     310Typically, these situations only arise once you're maintaining several Django
     311projects. When they do, the best solution is to use *virtualenv*. This tool
     312allows you to maintain multiple isolated Python environments, each with its own
     313copy of the libraries and package namespace.
     314
     315Learn more on the `virtualenv <http://www.virtualenv.org/>`_ Web site.
     316
     317More about reusable apps
     318========================
     319
     320For more on writing reusable apps, see `What is a reusable app?
     321<http://ericholscher.com/projects/django-conventions/app/>`_ by Eric
     322Holsher. For a collection of reusable apps to use in your own projects, see the
     323`Pinax <http://pinaxproject.com/>`_ project.
     324
     325The tutorial ends here for the time being. In the meantime, you might want to
     326check out some pointers on :doc:`where to go from here </intro/whatsnext>`.
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